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Church and state in France

The Concordat of Bologna (1516) was an established and efficient protocol for the conduct of church-papal relations throughout the period with the Holy Father generally content to confirm royal nominations to dioceses. Failure to do so commonly led to temporary French military occupation of the Avignon and Venaissin enclaves. The Gallican church was, to all intents and purposes, a royal church, the model of a church-state polity to which every lesser Catholic monarch aspired. Despite possessing formidable structures of self-government (the quinquennial General Assembly of the Clergy was the most prestigious) and being exempted from direct taxation (it offered its own 'free gift', set at a rate and incidence of its choosing), the church was a dependent institution that looked to the monarchy for protection. It was not always forthcoming, but the majority of bishops and priests rarely faltered in their loyalty, even when the Gallican Articles of 1682 were discarded in favour of using...

Church and state in Germany and the Habsburg Empire

The pronounced state loyalties of Catholic clergy in most German principalities is well attested, a feature of the political landscape even before the Treaty of Westphalia, and it was nowhere stronger than in the three electoral principalities of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne where state and church alike were governed by their prince-archbishop. The Elector of Mainz, the senior archiepiscopal elector, was also the arch-chancellor of the empire, giving him a diplomatic status that far outweighed his territorial importance. His colleagues

The state church ideal

The civil wars fought within the British Isles from the Scottish 'Bishops' Wars' of 1638-39 into the 1650s were essentially wars of religion, often initiated as bids for control of national churches. Almost all parties to these conflicts had initially held the rightness of a homogeneous, authoritative church congruent with the polity what distinguished the participants were their goals forthat unitedbody. Yet the realities of conflict splintered this ideal in the 1640s the 'plural society' triumphed as each man did what was right in his own eyes. This teeming, passionate sectarianism meant that at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 a revived state church was the least likely of political possibilities. Yet the ideal of a national church was first reinstituted, and then enjoyed a hegemonic position into the 1820s. This was especially so in England. The idea of an 'Ecclesia Anglicana' had a millennium of varied development behind it by 1660 the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 had...

The nature of the English church

The Restoration in 1660 did not follow a Laudian blueprint, but it was primarily High Churchmen who exploited Laud's legacy in order to shape a reinsti-tuted regime royal supremacy, episcopacy, the threefold ministry of bishops, priests and deacons, church courts, and liturgical uniformity. They coupled this ecclesiastical polity with a High Church ecclesiology their keynote was the church's hierocratic nature. Sancroft, preaching at the great restocking of episcopal ranks in 1660, did not defend the relation of the church to the state, but rather promoted the church itself as an ecclesiastical polity whose form and authority derived from the Apostles. Besides that momentous theme, the exact nature of the church's connection with the state was not his priority, as long as the state accorded it protection.5 An episcopal regime in which the church claimed an independent source of authority was potentially a challenge to the monarchy as well as a support to it. It was therefore necessary...

The Wounds of the Church

Any stock-taking of the pre-Columbus Church must include some account of several 'wounds' to borrow an expression used by Innocent IV (pope 1243-54) in his opening homily at the First Council of Lyons (1245) and by Antonio Rosmini-Serbati (1797-1855) for the title of his book on ecclesiastical reform, The Five Wounds of the Church. We name three such wounds from the pre-1492 Church the exile of popes in Avignon and the strife over antipopes the persecution of Jews and heretics deteriorating relations with Muslims. Within the body of Christian believers, the recurrent presence of antipopes down to 1449 (all faithfully listed along with the popes in an appendix to the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church) weakened Catholic life and continued to hamper attempts at reunion with the Orthodox Church. Matters were exacerbated by 'the Babylonian Captivity', a phrase applied by Francesco Petrarch (1304-74) and later writers to the exile of popes in Avignon from 1309 to 1377. Clement V...

What did the dragon design to do to the child about to be born to the church

NOTE.-It is an undisputed point in history that, when Constantine removed the seat of his empire from Rome to Constantinople, in 330 A.D., the city of Rome was given up to the bishop of Rome, who, in 538, became the head of all the churches, and the corrector of heretics, by the work of Justinian, the ruling emperor of the Romans. Thus Rome became the seat of the papacy, and the authority of the pope was derived from the decree of the dragon power. See Croly on the Apocalypse. pages 114-115. NOTE. - Many millions have been martyred by the Roman Church, because they dared to differ with her in religious opinions. See Fox's Book of Martyrs The Wars of the Huguenots Buck's Theological Dictionary, art. Persecutions histories of the Reformation, etc.

Church and Biblical Christianity

Symbols Victory Christianity

This chapter considers in more detail how a mode of Christianity orientated around higher power became dominant. Covering the period from the 4th century to the dawn of the modern period, it traces the development of the two most important manifestations of such Christianity - what can be called 'Church Christianity' and 'Biblical Christianity'. Church Christianity has had the most extensive influence over the longest period of all types of Christianity. Both the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church belong to this type, as do many of the earlier Protestant churches, most notably the Lutheran, Presbyterian, and Anglican churches (see below). With its origins in the upheavals of the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, Biblical Christianity develops out of Church Christianity, and retains a number of its characteristics, including its orientation around higher power. But instead of locating such power - on earth - in the church, its rituals and traditions,...

The Church As The Bearer Of The Word

One of the most significant and distinctive Protestant beliefs concerns the nature of the church. As we saw earlier, the medieval church in western Europe offered a strongly institutionalized account of how salvation was effected. There was no salvation outside the institution of the church it was by membership in the sacral community and observation of its rites that the individual secured salvation. Continuity with the apostles was safeguarded by historical institutional continuity, which was transmitted by the laying on of hands and passed down from one generation of the successors of the apostles to the next. This strongly institutionalized vision of the church was often defended by citing a maxim of the third-century martyr Cyprian of Carthage Outside the church, there is no salvation. Anyone who wanted to be saved had to belong to the Catholic church. The detachment of the fledgling Protestant churches from this body was thus fraught with theological peril. Were these breakaway...

Is Peter the rock upon which the church is built and if not who or what is

The church is founded upon the great spiritual truth Peter confessed to Jesus in these passages that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God. But Jesus Himself is the rock upon which He is building His church (CP Mt 7 24-25 Lu 6 47-48 Ac 4 10-12 Ro 9 33 1Cor 3 11 Eph 5 23 1Pe 2 68). Peter and the rest of the apostles played a foundational role in the building of the church, but Christ remains the rock upon which it is built (CP Eph 2 13-22). There is much teaching in Christendom that Peter is the rock upon which Christ is building the church because His name means rock, but that is not correct. Peter is from the Greek word Petros, which simply means a stone or fragment of rock that is easily moved, whereas the rock that Jesus said He will build His church upon is Petra, an immovable mass of rock which is used figuratively of Jesus Himself in both the Old and New Testaments (CP Ex 17 6 Psa 118 22 Isa 8 13-15 28 16 with 1Cor 10 1-4 and Mt 7 24-25 Lu 6 48 Ro...

Church property and rights to the tithe

In Protestant Europe, the Reformation had stripped away a considerable amount of church property, much of it coming from monasteries that were dissolved. The land, real estate, and other assets that had once belonged to the church fell into the hands of secular authorities or served to fund schools, universities, and charities. Protestant churches did possess some property and still retained most rights to the tithe, but they owned far less than religious institutions in Catholic territories. Precisely how much property the Catholic Church had is not easily determined. One reason is that contemporary accounts of the church's assets and early historical analyses of what it owned were often biased. Eighteenth-century reformers who wanted their governments to confiscate church land often exaggerated the church's holdings. Nineteenth-century historians of suppressed religious houses, who lamented what the church had gone through, would do the same, while their anticlerical opponents might...

The Church after Pentecost

The first Christians thought of the Church as inseparable from the risen Christ and from the Holy Spirit. He was the heavenly Spouse of the Church (e.g. Eph. 5 25 7) or 'the head of the bod which is the Church (e.g. Eph. 5 23). Baptism in the name of Jesus (e.g. Acts 2 38) or, with what became the normative formula, 'in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit' (Matt. 28 19) brought consecration by the Holy Spirit. The baptized knew themselves to be the living temples of the Spirit (1 Cor. 3 16 17 6 19) language that eventually led to calling the Spirit 'the soul of the Church'. Baptism initiated believers into the Church, in which the Eucharist nourished their ongoing life. As we showed in Ch. 7, the trinitarian nature of baptism was eventually unfolded in the eucharistic anamnesis., epiclesis., and doxology, with their particular reference to the Son, the Spirit, and the Father, respectively In the twentieth century Henri de Lubac (1896 1991) coined the axiom...

New Models Of The Church

Such frustration, of course, is not new. The great Protestant preacher Harry Emerson Fosdick, who played such an important role in the great fundamentalist controversies of the 1920s, once made the astonishing revelation that he had once considered leaving the historic Christian organizations in order to start his own independent movement. 26 Fosdick was dismissive of those who demanded ecclesiastical loyalty, holding that his only loyalty was to Christ. Yet despite his frustrations, he never set up his own church, even though his personal reputation was such that its future would have been secure. After all, he was widely regarded as the greatest preacher of his age and was regularly introduced to clergy conferences as Dr. Fosdick, whose sermons you will have read and preached. direction to those who shared Fosdick's frustrations but not his patience. Protestant understandings of the nature of the church locate its identity as a Christian body, not in its institutional history or...

The Maronite Church

Ane, 1930 new edition, Beirut Librairie orientale, 2001) Frazee, Charles, 'The Maronite middle ages', Eastern Churches Review 10 (1978), 88-100 Gribomont, J., 'Documents sur les origines de l'Eglise maronite', Parole de l'Orient 5 (1974), 95-132 Moosa, M., The Maronites in history (Syracuse, NY Syracuse University Press, 1986) Rajji, M., 'Le monothelisme chez les Maronites et les Melkites', JEcclH 2 (1951), 38-42 Salibi, K. S., 'The Maronites of Lebanon under Frankish and Mamluk rule, 1099-1516', Arabica 4 (1957), 288-303 'The Maronite church in the middle ages and its union with Rome', Oriens Christianus 42 (1958), 92-104

The Emperor And The Church

Cross-references ro the actions of emperors and to church councils discussed in Chapters II-XVII are not given in what follows the relevant passages can easily be located through the table of contents and the indices. 11. Despite his title, R. Staats, 'Das Kaiserreich 1871-1918 und die Kirchengeschichtsschreibung,' ZKG 92 (1981), 69-96, has nothing to say on the important topic of how the political and cultural background affectcd historians of the Christian church. One contrast seems especially significant. Although Jacob Burckhardt uses the term 'Reichskirche' in the second edition of his classic book about Constantine and his age, published in Germany in 1880 (Zeit Constantins Even in the second edition, however, it should be noted that Burckhardt immediately went on to observe that the church of the fourth century was able to challenge the political power of the emperors. Edward Gibbon's view had been similar 'the distinction of the spiritual and temporal powers, which had never...

The Emperor And The Church 324361

What does the career of athanasius reveal about the chris-rian church in the Constantinian empire This essay in historical reconstruction has attempted to understand what Athanasius wrote about his career and why he wrote as he did, and, at the same time, to analyse what he wrote in order to disentangle the true course of events from the subtle misrepresentations with which he deliberately covered and obscured his controversial career. What general inferences may now drawn 1 This constant involvement of Constantius in the affairs of the Christian church is only imperfectly reflected in the ecclesiastical historians of the fifth century, and is seriously obscured by Ammianus Marcellinus, whose full and often first-hand account survives of the period from the death of Magnentius in 353 to the death of Valens in 378 and its immediate aftermath. Ammianus enjoys a very high reputation as a historian capable of impartiality, who both understood the world in which he lived and faithfully...

Is this a command to the church or a commission as so many believe

It is the responsibility of every believer in the New Testament church to win souls to Christ. That is the Christian calling. It is not an option for believers, but a command that has to be obeyed Christ has commanded it (CP Mt 28 18-20 Mk 16 15-16 Ac 1 6-8 10 42-43 1Cor 9 16-17). Christ's directive to His followers in Mt 28 and Mk 16 has been termed the Great Commission in the contemporary church, but that term is a misnomer. Christ's directive is more than a commission - it is a command as Ac 10 42-43 and 1Cor 9 16-17 clearly teach. A commission can be rejected - and there are many in the contemporary church who do not see that winning souls to Christ is a duty incumbent upon them personally - but a command has to be obeyed, and we can only prove our love for Christ and ensure our place in His eternal kingdom by obeying His commands (CP Psa 119 9, 16, 24, 47, 77, 174 Mt 19 17 Jn 14 15, 21, 23-24 15 10 1Cor 7 19 1Jn 2 3-5 3 22-24 5 2-3 2Jn 6 Rev 22 14). All those scriptures teach the...

Edward Irving 17921834 The Rapture and the Rupture Between Israel and the Church

Having accepted a call in 1822 to pastor the Church of Scotland congregation at the Caledonian Chapel, Iriving soon became a popular if controversial speaker. So much so that the Chapel proved too small for the large numbers who wanted to hear him, and a larger church was built in Regent Square in 1827.3 in it Irving advanced the assertion that the Church, far from being on the threshold of a new era of blessing, was about to enter a 'series of thick-coming judgments and fearful perplexities' preparatory to Christ's advent and reign.4 2. Irving Views on the Gentile Church and the Jewish People These three points of doctrine concerning the Gentile church, the future Jewish and universal church, and the personal advent of the Lord to destroy the one and to build up the other, I opened and defended out of the scriptures from Sabbath to Sabbath, with all boldness, yet with fear and trembling at that time I did not know of one brother in the ministry who held with me in these matters, and...

The church in evangelical theology and practice

When Christmas Day fell on a Sunday in 2005, a minor religious and cultural furor erupted, as reported by American news organizations, when several leading evangelical churches decided to cancel their Sunday morning worship services. This was because Christmas was a family day,'' said church spokespersons. One leader observed that it would not be convenient for parents to have to deal with excitable children, have Christmas breakfast, and then change clothes and come to church. After all, people could go to one of the scheduled Christmas Eve services - there was nothing special about Sunday. What aroused the most comment on this story was the fact that these were evangelical churches-accustomed to bearing the torch of conserving cultural and religious traditions, not discarding them. So, this event was a particular shock to cultural observers. But what was also interesting, yet unacknowledged by editorialists on the front pages of newspapers, was the ecclesiology that such an action...

Anglican Israel and the Influence of Episcopal Church in Palestine

In the 19th Century, coinciding with world-wide Western missionary endeavours, improvements in transportation, and paralleling European Colonial expansion in this strategic staging post to Africa and Asia, there was a renewed interest in Palestine among the major Protestant denominations. At the beginning of the 19th Century the only representatives of Western Christianity to be found in Jerusalem had been the Franciscans and only the Orthodox and Armenian traditions were resident in significant numbers. From the mid 19th Century, Protestant denominations began to found their own churches, not so much from a separatist spirit but because of the animosity and ostracism of the Eastern traditions. Their reformed theology, emphasis on personal conversion and lay leadership were anathema to Eastern Orthodoxy.178 The Church Missionary Society (CMS) was among the earliest to show an interest from 1821, but it was the London Jews Society (LJS) who established the first permanent mission...

Vatican I and the Church

The constitution on Catholic faith, Dei Films ('Son of God'), the first document solemnly accepted by the bishops at the First Vatican Council, made a passing reference in its introduction to the Church as 'the mystical body of Christ' the renewal brought about by the Council of Trent meant 'an increased vigour in the whole mystical body of Christ'. But the same introduction also listed among the blessings that followed Trent 'a closer union of the members with the visible head' (i.e. the pope) and the growth throughout the whole world of 'the Kingdom of Christ', which was obviously identified with the Catholic Church.195 But Vatican I's second constitution, Pastor Aeternus ('the Eternal Pastor'), did not develop ideas either about the Church as the body of Christ or about the relationship of Church to Kingdom. It solemnly pronounced on two questions (a) the As regards (a), Vatican I taught that the pope exercised 'primacy of jurisdiction over the whole Church' (and not merely primacy...

The Churchs One Foundation

By calling the Church 'the seven-branched candlestick which bears the light of Christ' (see the opening of this chapter), Irenaeus expressed two 184 Aquinas reflects on the Church, particularly but not exclusively, when he deals with the grace of Christ as the head of the Church (ST III q. 8 a. 1 6) or with the sacraments (ST III. qq. 60 90). The Blackfriars translation of the Summa Theologiae gathers together in a general index his scattered references to the Church (London Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1981), lxi. 82 . things the origin of the Church in the Jewish people and the role of Jesus in founding this new assembly of God's people. The OT spoke of the people at Mount Sinai when they received the Ten Commandments and entered a solemn covenant with God as 'the gathering' or 'assembly (e.g. Deut. 5 22 the synagoge in the LXX or Greek version) or as their ecclesia ('that which has been called out' in the Greek of Deut. 9 10 18 16). The NT applies synagoge ('synagogue' in English) to...

Vatican II and the Church

Before the Council opened, Pope John XXIII in a 1961 encyclical recalled how Jesus had founded the Church 'to hold the world in an embrace of love, so that men and women, in every age, should find in her their own completeness in a higher order of being, and their ultimate salvation' (Mater et Magistra, 1). Through all four sessions of Vatican II the bishops and their advisers, together with other Christians who had been invited as observers, reflected on and prayed over the nature and mission of the Church, which, in one way or another, became the theme of all sixteen documents promulgated by the Council. At the end of Ch. 2 and in later chapters (e.g. Ch. 7), we have summarized some of the achievements of Vatican II in Ch. 9 we will have much to say about Gaudium et Spes. But what was special or new about the teaching on the Church In particular, the dogmatic constitution of 1964 Lumen Gentium ('The Light of Nations'), to which ten other documents were attached either simultaneously...

Union of Church and State

What was already at work in the church in Paul's day The mystery of iniquity doth already work. 2 Thessalonians 2 7. What class of men did he warn were to soon arise in the church For I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock. Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them. Acts 20 29, 30. What apostasy in the church was to develop before Christ would return the second time That day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition. 2 Thessalonians 2 3. How was this falling away from Bible truth shown By the adoption of heathen rites and customs in the church. 'Worldly-minded bishops, instead of caring for the salvation of their flocks, were often but too much inclined to travel about, and entangle themselves in worldly concerns. Neander, General History of the Christian Religion and Church (Torrey's translation ,...

What petition was made to the emperor by a church convention in 401 AD

How was their devotion disturbed Church teachers were, in truth, often forced to com- plain, that in such competitions the theater was vastly more frequented than the church. Ibid., page 300. When the church had received help from the state to this extent, what more did she demand That the civil power should be exerted to compel men to serve God as the church should dictate. NOTE. - It was thus that the union of church and state was formed, out of which was developed the beast (papacy) which made war with the saints and overcame them. NOTE. - If the whiteness of the first horse denoted the purity of the gospel which its rider propagated, then the change of color in the second horse would show that corruption had begun to creep in when this symbol applies. It is true that such a state of things did succeed that apostolic church. Worldliness came in. The church sought alliance with the secular power, and trouble and commotion were the result. This symbol extends to the time of...

Then after 1000 years of the institutional church reigning on earth

Lindsey further states that we believe that the institutional church will reign on the earth. I do not quite know what to make of that. I have never heard or read it advocated by anybody. It sounds as if he is saying that we believe Church officers should exercise police powers, or should be in charge of the civil government. In case there are any doubts on that score, let me state categorically that we do not believe that the institu-Church should rule over the State. We do, however, believe that rulers should be Christians, and should apply Biblical principles of justice within their areas of responsibility. The point is not that Church and State are merged into one organization rather, the point is that Church and State are both under God and the absolute authority of His Word. The Church is the divinely appointed ministry of grace the State is the divinely appointed ministry of justice. Both receive their commission from the Word of God.

The Church As Communion And Mission

After presenting the teaching on the Church's nature and mission that Vatican I and II expounded, we want to conclude this chapter by drawing 211 See also in Ch. 1 above how Jan van Eyck (and other artists) understood Mary, even at the Annunciation, to be the archetype of the whole Church. on the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed. The former expresses belief in 'the communion of saints' and the latter calls the Church 'one, holy, catholic, and apostolic' the four traditional marks of the Church of which the Apostles' Creed mentions only two (holy and catholic). We noted in Ch. 6 what the communion of saints entails a fellowship in Christian life with all the baptized, both still living and already dead, and with God. Such fellowship, created by union in the risen Christ and through the Holy Spirit with God the Father, extends to all the members of the Church, who by their baptism share in Christ's 'office' as priest, prophet, and king. This communion makes the...

The laity at church

The Byzantine landscape, whether urban or rural, was marked by ecclesiastical structures of varying size, shape and purpose. Within the city, the laity had access to large-scale metropolitan churches, which often retained the architectural form of the venerable basilicas constructed in the early centuries of the empire. Judging from the size of the medieval basilicas that still stand in Berroia, Kalambaka, Servia, Ohrid and Edessa (medieval Vodena), as well as in other large and small Byzantine cities, hundreds of parishioners could have been accommodated within the body of a single church. These buildings provide us the spatial context in which to imagine the powerful sermons of such figures as Gregory Palamas, who, as bishop of Thessalonike (1347-59), brought the city's residents to the heights of religious fervour. In addition, Byzantine cities were marked by dozens of other religious structures, which also provided the laity with access to sacred rite and space. Larger cities...

A Persecuting Church

Also, this woman is a great persecuting church. The Apostle John was inspired to write I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. And when I saw her, I marveled with great amazement (v. 6). Please think about that. Who is this great fallen woman a powerful church which has and which will again be drunk with the blood of the saints Obviously, she persecutes the true Christians the true saints of God. They are described in Revelation 14 12 Here is the patience of the saints here are those who keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus. In contrast to the commandment-keeping Church of God, this great apostate church and her daughter churches reject the need to keep the Ten Commandments as a way of life Somehow, in their spiritual drunkenness, they manage to reason around the plain and clear teachings of Jesus If you want to enter into life, keep the commandments (Matthew 19 17). Historically, do we read about a great church...

Church Suppers

What about church suppers Some church groups feel that it is wrong to have sandwiches in the basement of the church and others get quite happy over having a party in church. They have different standards of holiness. Our purpose in this study is not to lift up any standard of holiness, neither is it to down any. I know and am persuaded by the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean of itself but to him that esteemeth any thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean (Rom. 14 14). Therefore if your leaders declare it is wrong -- it is wrong. If they say it is O.K. -- it is right. Church law has nothing to do with pleasing God. It has a lot to do with pleasing men. What many people refer to as their standards of holiness are not really laws of God --they are rules of men. wedding reception in your church, you are obliged to rent another hall. However, the church down the street is perfectly free, under God, to hold a wedding reception in the church sanctuary if they want. But probably...

Gods Church

At the same time all these events come together at the sounding of the Fifth Trumpet, there will be an initial period of time (five months) when much human suffering will continue as a result of the first four trumpets. This marks a time of great suffering on a worldwide scale, but even now, God's Church is still part of these prophetic events. God's Church still exists on earth, and will continue, all the way up to the very return of Jesus Christ but many who were scattered in the Church, after the great falling away, will not live into the new millennial period that follows. Those of the scattered Church of God, who are tormented during this five-month period, will suffer greatly for their stubborn pride and continued defiance against God. Once this time has ended as a final time of trying, all of those who have resisted God through selfish pride will die and will not be allowed to enter the millennial period that will soon follow. Instead, they will be awakened (from death) at the...

Fafertin Church

To the building on the narrow sides faced the presbytery. Anyone entering a Christian basilica had to cover a certain distance in order to reach the presbytery and the altar. The side aisles could serve to separate men and women, while the middle aisle was set aside for clerics, processions, festivals and official church meetings. Oftentimes the middle aisle contained a solea, a walled passageway used by the clerics as an entrance to the presbytery during processions. The middle aisles of Greek churches contained an ambo (pulpit). Separating the presbytery from the nave lent the Christian basilica a distinctly elongated shape that was an innovation in that the profane Roman basilica could never be transversed lengthways only. The decision to build multi-nave columned basilicas was not made on the grounds that this was a more suitable arrangement for religious purposes than, for example, an undivided space with columns. The basilica has always been regarded as a particularly ornate and...

The politics of reform Wittenberg

Luther lived in the small university town of Wittenberg from 1512 until his death in 1546, all of that time in the same complex of buildings that formed the cloister of the Augustinian Hermits. When Luther and Katharina von Bora (1499-1552) married in 1525, Elector John of Saxony awarded them the cloister as their home. Wittenberg became the cradle of the Reformation only because Luther and his colleagues taught at the university and because the town was a residence of the Saxon electors. Wittenberg was also used as a political and ecclesiastical testing ground for the earliest reforms. During Luther's exile at the Wartburg Castle (1521-2), the first demonstrations of popular support took place and the first concrete changes were made by Luther's colleagues Andrew Karlstadt (1486-1540), Gabriel Zwilling (1487-1558), and Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560). Although Luther disapproved of the rapid changes and tumult that ensued, Karlstadt proposed a church order that was opposed by Elector

Coping with the flux beyond the steppes

Matters stood rather differently in the wider world of the steppes and the northern forest zones. Emperor and patriarch had readily provided for the new power-centres that emerged there after the Tatars' onslaught early in the fourteenth century, metropolitan sees were created for the Rus principality of Galich (Galicia) and, around 1315, for the polity of the Lithuanian grand dukes. The latter were still practising pagans, but they had drastically extended their dominions to the south and south-east, incorporating large populations of Orthodox Rus. The Orthodox Church seems to have flourished under the pagan regime, and even gained adherents among the ruling family. Sons of Grand Duke Olgerd were Orthodox believers by c. 1347. When three Christians were put to death for refusing the grand duke's orders to eat meat during a fast, the sons reportedly saw to the burial of one of the martyrs. It may well have been the mounting appeal of Orthodoxy to members of Olgerd's court that...

Byzantine scholars and Italy

A complaint made against the Palamites by their opponents was that they condoned the advance of the Turks. Although not strictly true, it caught a new development the willingness of Greeks, as individuals or as communities, to throw in their lot with the marauding Turks. As often as not this led to assimilation and conversion to Islam. This contrasted with the obstinacy with which the Greeks retained their religion in lands ruled by Latins. The difference is best explained by the conditions of conquest. The Ottoman conquest was a traumatic business, where resistance brought destruction and enslavement, while cooperation offered material benefits. The Latin conquest was far less brutal, but more humiliating, because of the subjection of the mass of the population which was Greek and Orthodox to a ruling class that was Latin and Catholic. The Latin regimes in the Levant were anxious to ensure that this division remained intact, because it was a guarantee of dominance. Equally, it suited...

Bishops Princes and Popes

During the early centuries of Christianity, the clergy and people of a local church picked their own bishop. A famous choice was that of Ambrose of Milan, the governor of the city and region, who had not yet been baptized when the people called for him after Bishop Auxentius died in 373 or 374 'Ambrose for bishop ' In those centuries neighbouring bishops gave (or Being considered married to their dioceses, bishops could not be transferred from one diocese to another. The First Council of Nicaea (325) required that bishops (like priests and deacons) should remain in the diocese where they had been ordained (canon 15). It was only in 882 that someone already a bishop was first elected bishop of Rome, Pope Marinus I. The non-transferable state of bishops in the ancient Church contrasts with what regularly happens today in the (Western) Catholic Church, in which a bishop may move from one diocese to another and sometimes even shift on to a third often thereby 'moving up the episcopal...

From Columbus To John Paul Ii

Catholic' meant at different times and in different places in that past That could open the way to appreciate how the experience of the ages has shaped the Catholic Church we see today. These were centuries deeply marked by religious persecutions and wars. Rather than move along apportioning the blame, we will attempt to understand the processes involved. In general, faith entered so deeply into the lives and consciousness of most Catholics (and others) that they simply took it for granted that their shared religion necessarily underpinned their common social and political existence. Real differences of faith were seen as socially and politically intolerable. To organize themes, we will look in order at the expansion of Europe, the Reformation, the new learning, and the coming of the world Church. Whatever we achieve in the closing section of this chapter, we certainly do not want to give the impression that the present Catholic Church and the pontificate of John Paul II have been the...

Elizabeth A Zachariadqu

Byzantium had existed under the shadow of the Ottomans for more than half a century before its final fall. This produced a series of problems for the ecumenical patriarch, now that the majority of the metropolitan and episcopal sees in Thrace and the southern Balkans, which constituted the core of the patriarchate of Constantinople, came under Turkish domination, leaving Constantinople as an island in the middle of Ottoman territories. Nevertheless, representatives of the Greek Orthodox Church were present and active in these territories. This situation had its roots in the aftermath of the battle of Mantzikert (1071), when much of Asia Minor passed under the control of the Seljuq Turks. By the end of the fourteenth century the Seljuqs were a distant memory and the dominant Anatolian power was now the Ottomans, who had already conquered Thrace and much of the Balkans. Both Seljuqs and Ottomans applied the principles of the Koran, which recognises the Peoples of the Book, that is, the...

Early Leadership and Life

Dura Europos Murales

In concluding his Letter to the Romans, Paul begins with 'our sister Phoebe, a deacon of the church', speaks of those who 'work' to spread the good news, and greets twenty-six people, twenty-four of them by name. As much as any passage in the NT, the final chapter of Romans raises the question was the Church meant to be a completely egalitarian community, free of any kind of subordination to office-holders and hierarchical authorities Did the vision of Jesus and the spontaneous direction of the Holy Spirit exclude the institutionalized leadership, which occurred in the subsequent transmission of a threefold ministry of bishops, priests, and deacons Did that historical development betray Jesus' original dream of a community of male and female disciples as co-partners variously empowered by the Holy Spirit to minister to the whole community In its normative, first-century period was the Church directly governed by the Holy Spirit and did it flourish without supervisory authorities or...

Foundational and Dependent Revelation

After another, to accept in faith the divine self-manifestation that was completed with Jesus and his first disciples. Dei Verbum associates revelation as it happened then with revelation as it happens now (in the Church) in these terms 'God, who spoke in the past, continues to converse with the spouse of his beloved Son' (no. 8). Vatican Il's Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sacrosanctum Concilium ('the Sacred Council'), apropos of the various ways Christ is present in the Church's public worship, acknowledges that 'it is he himself who speaks when the holy scriptures are read in the Church' in the context of worship 'Christ is still proclaiming his gospel' (nos. 7, 33). Other documents of Vatican II and the teaching of Pope John Paul II, most notably his 1979 Apostolic Exhortation on Catechesis in Our Time, Catechesi Tradendae ('Handing on Catechesis') and his 1980 encyclical letter Dives in Misericordia ('Rich in Mercy'), portray revelation as also being a present reality which...

From the fall of Constantinople 1204 to the council of Lyons 1274 and its aftermath

This tract was a key document in the refashioning of the Byzantine identity, which was now defined against the Latins. If the defence of Orthodoxy against the Latin threat became its central feature, the exact nature of that threat was not always clear and produced mixed reactions across the Byzantine population. In the short term, an even greater danger was that the Orthodox Church would split up into a series of autonomous churches, which mirrored the political conditions of the time. That this did not happen was largely the work of the patriarch Germanos II (1223-40). He took his ecumenical duties very seriously, asserting his authority in different ways over the various separated churches, whether in Russia, Georgia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Epiros or Cyprus. He confirmed the Greeks of Constantinople in their faith and exhorted the Cypriots to resist Latin pressure for submission. These actions inevitably brought him into contact with the Latin Church. In the process he rescued five...

Chris Chulos Orthodoxy

Michael ANgOLD is Professor Emeritus of Byzantine History, University of Edinburgh. Among his publications is Church and society in Byzantium under the Comneni (1081-1261) (1995). REVd john binns is Vicar of Great St Mary's, Cambridge. Among his publications is An introduction to the Christian Orthodox churches (2002).

The Armenian Principality Of Artaz And The School Of Corcor

In 1243 Catholicos Kostandin Barjrberdc'i (1221-67) responded positively to Innocent IV's query regarding recognition of the sacrament of extreme unction and other liturgical rites. However, the more substantive issues debated during his long term of office, the filioque and Petrine primacy, only exposed the extent of the differences separating the two sides. Among the messengers the pope dispatched to the east on 25 March 1245 in the run up to the first Council of Lyons was the Franciscan Dominic ofAragon, who was to secure an Armenian confession of faith. When King Het'um I discussed this with his mentor Vardan Arewelc'i, the latter responded by writing a brief compilation of fifteen Latin errors.59 It may be that the creation in 1247 of a new archiepiscopal see at the monastery of St Thaddaeus was also part of this reaction to papal primacy. Not only was St Thaddaeus the traditional guarantor of the apostolicity of the Armenian Church,60 but his monastery also lay close to the...

The union of Florence 1439 and its aftermath

Why did the new emperor not follow his father's wise example and steer clear of too close an involvement with Rome It was very largely because temporising over the union of churches became more difficult once a new pope, Eugenius IV (1431-47) - in the face of the challenge from the council of Basel - offered increasingly advantageous terms. Instead of the prospect of a dictated settlement there were guarantees of unfettered discussion of the points at issue between the two churches.49 The driving force behind negotiations was the emperor John VIII Palaiol-ogos, who emerges as a man of some stature.51 Like his predecessors, he saw union as the only means of obtaining substantial help from the west. He had already as a young man made two journeys to the west in search of support. He had been entertained at the court of the emperor Sigismund, who admitted that the Orthodox Church had preserved a purer tradition than the Latin Church. And not only that...

Basic outlines of a social biography of the new clergy

Undoubtedly, there are also other aspects of social origin (such as peasant backgrounds), particularly at the outer edges of Europe (in the south and central-east), which need to be taken into account as exceptions to the rule. And the high clergy in the Catholic Church still came from the European nobility.

Demetrios Kydones and Thomas Aquinas

Barlaam may have laid the foundations for the later appropriation of Latin scholasticism by Byzantine theology, but he was remembered as Gregory Palamas's first opponent and an enemy of Orthodoxy.33 With his departure the controversy over the uncreated light could be conducted along strictly Byzantine lines. Palamas's opponents recognised his teachings for what they were a daring innovation, which was difficult to justify either on philosophical grounds or in terms of traditional Byzantine theology. The triumph of the Palamites should not be dismissed as merely a product of the political configurations of the time. Bad theologian that he may well have been, Gregory Palamas was in tune with one of the enduring refrains of Orthodoxy 'God became man, so that man might become God.' His theology was part of a spiritual revival, which spread via monasteries to all parts of the Orthodox world. It tilted the balance within the Orthodox Church to the monastic order. Effectively, Mount Athos...

Theology and impact of reform

Martin Luther did not have a theology in the form of a coherent system that a professor would publish or deliver to students. The Reformation, however, made Luther a more comprehensive theologian than he would have become if his output had been limited to biblical lectures. For the most part, his theology was shaped by the course of reform and the opposition it provoked, and Luther realized it very well. In the preface to his German writings published in 1539, Luther boasted that the assaults of his Roman opponents had made a fairly good theologian of him.45 Owing to its controversial setting and the issues in dispute, Luther's theology concentrated on the way in which the work of Christ was mediated to believers through the word of God, the church, and the sacraments. As soon as Luther began to question his Nominalist heritage and to reconsider the sacraments, his theology was launched in a direction

The Rite for Christian Initiation of Adults

Since the Rite for Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA) was introduced in 1972, Catholics have been blessed by a retrieval of the ancient process for a conscious, grace-filled entry into the life of the Church. Formally elected and welcomed by the local community on the First Sunday of Lent, the catechumens, who have already been formed by the assembly in the ways of worship, justice, and personal prayer, begin their final period of preparation to receive the three sacraments of Christian initiation. The gospels of the Samaritan woman in search of water (John 4 5 42), the man born blind (John 9 1 41), and the raising of Lazarus (John 11 1 45) are proclaimed at Mass on the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Sundays of Lent, respectively These gospels incorporate three important themes of Christian initiation cleansing through water and yearning for eternal life faith understood as sight and vision and death to one's 'old' self so as to rise again with Christ. After the homily on those Sundays...

Sharon E J Gerstel And Alicemart Talbot

Orthodox faith permeated the everyday lives of Byzantine men and women, not just when they attended church services, but at home, in the streets and even at work. The liturgical calendar, which designated certain days of the week for fasting and Sundays for worship, provided a temporal framework for the pious. Each day of the year had a special significance, whether it was a dominical feast day of Christ, a celebration of the Virgin Mary, a saint's day, or a commemoration of key events in the lives of Christ and His Mother. Ecclesiastical rituals sanctified life passages, such as birth, marriage and death. Finally, in addition to their concerns about life on earth, Byzantines focused intensely on the afterlife, with eternal salvation as their foremost goal.

The Reformation and Beyond

The Protestant Reformers, led by Martin Luther, rejected papal authority, did not (at least initially) envisage a divided Christendom, and wanted to eradicate evils and bring the Church into line with NT faith and the scriptures. Luther, in his Large Catechism of 1529, wrote of the Church on earth as 'a little holy group and congregation of pure saints, under one head, Christ, called together by the Holy Spirit in one faith, one mind, and understanding, with manifold gifts, yet agreeing in love, without sects or schisms'. Believers are 'incorporated' into the Church 'by the Holy Spirit' through 'hearing and continuing to hear the Word of God'. The Holy Spirit 'abides with the holy congregation', 'brings us to Christ', and 'promotes sanctification, causing this congregation to grow daily and become strong in the faith and its fruits which the Spirit produces' (10. 3). John Calvin, in his Institutes of Christian Religion, distinguished between the invisible Church of 'the elect of God'...

Norwich Jj Sitwell R. Mount Athos. 1966.

Liturgy was the great product of Byzantine culture and sustained the church through dark days of oppression when other forms of expression were denied, and it is now enabling new life to spring up. Modern spirituality begins with meditation on the church and its worship. If the liturgy is the action which creates the church, then the monastery is the place where the church is sustained. Monasteries are far more than centres set apart for prayer. They are places where the rich and intricate liturgical tradition is maintained and prayed they are centres for local devotion and often pilgrimage they have provided education and training, especially of church leaders since bishops are drawn from the monastic body, and are often centres of local economic and social life. In many and varied ways they provide the resources and vitality of church life. So the church needs strong monasteries. The centre of monasticism is Mount Athos in Greece, the Holy Mountain. Here, for over a thousand years,...

Michael Bqurdeaux And Alexandru Popescu

The two Russian revolutions of 1917 (March and October) found the Russian Orthodox Church poised to embark on its own programme of reform. It was always the policy of Lenin (Vladimir Il'ich Ulianov) and the Bolsheviks to portray the state religion as benighted, clinging to the past, upholding outmoded values. Because of believers' lack of contact with the outside world, the totality of censorship and the cessation of objective historical research in the Soviet Union, this view tended towards acceptance in the world at large. The Russian Orthodox Church stands alone The truth was very different, as recent research has begun to uncover since the partial opening of archives in Russia. The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were, in fact, one of the most dynamic and creative periods in the history of the Orthodox Church.1 Debates on the role of the parish and the laity were widespread and, even if inconclusive, were not always comfortable for the hierarchy. The abdication of...

Historical Developments

But it was only at the end of the sixteenth century that 'moral theology', or that branch of theology which studies in a systematic way the ethical life and activity of Christians, began to emerge as a distinct branch of study. One unfortunate effect of this development was to separate moral theology from spirituality, and invest the former with a rather arid and legalistic character. What was true of academic theology applied also to the Church's official teachers. For well over a thousand years, councils, bishops, and popes, while producing some important pieces of official teaching in the area of morality, in general took for granted the Christian principles for human conduct. It was not until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that they began to develop explicitly a body of moral teaching. The notion of human rights, as we now understand them, had medieval roots, and early intimations of them can be found in the writings of the Dominican activist and theologian Bartolom de las...

Materials On The Theology Of Qebat Or Unction

Fasiladas inherited the throne of an exhausted, dispirited country with no option other than a return to the Orthodoxy of Zar'a Ya'qob. He benefited from his reaffirmation of the value of tradition in church and polity and his rule ushered in three generations of comparative peace and cultural revival. At Gondar he established the first fixed capital since Aksum and built churches and palaces. His son Yohannes I (r.1667-82), and grandson Iyasu I, the Great (r.1682-1706), followed his example, presiding over a state from which the threat of external forces had receded. However, the rise ofJesuit influence early in the century had sparked vigorous and diverse responses from the Ethiopian Church, bringing Christology back to the centre of disputation among the Orthodox, responses which slowly hardened into sectarianism associated with the two rival monastic orders. Both Yohannes and Iyasu presided over a succession of councils devoted to Christology, but, unlike Zar'a Ya'qob, they were...

General bibliography to Part IV The modern world chapters 2224

Afonsky, Bishop Gregory, A history of the Orthodox Church in America 1917-1982 (Kodiak, AK St Herman's Theological Seminary Press, i984) Alexander, Stella, Church and state in Yugoslavia since 1945 (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, i979) Beeson, Trevor, Discretion and valour, revised edition (London Collins, i982) Behr-Sigel, E. and Ware, K. The ordination of women in the Orthodox Church Risk Books Series 92 (Geneva WCC Publications, 2000) Binns, J., An introduction to the Christian Orthodox churches (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2002) Patriarchandprophets persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church today (London Macmillan, i969) church and the Oriental churches (Geneva Inter-Orthodox Dialogue, i998) Clement, O., Conversations with Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I (Crestwood, NY St Vladimir's Seminary Press, i997) Ellis, Jane, The Russian Orthodox Church a contemporary history (London and Sydney Croom Helm, i986) Fletcher, W C., A study in survival the Church in Russia...

Christian Orthodox Category Iiib

Ancient canons but were moved by 'a desire for novelty', putting in serious jeopardy proper ecclesiastical order 7 The crisis of the holy chrism delayed for three years the canonical recognition of autocephaly to which Romania, as a sovereign kingdom, was now entitled. This was only granted after the head of the Romanian Church, Kallinikos ofHungro-Wallachia, in agreement with the Romanian government, wrote to the patriarch Joachim IV, who on 25 April i885 duly acceded to their request for autocephalous status with yet another synodal tome.iS The nationalist drive in the Romanian Church continued unabated, as scholarship attempted to re-create a distinct Romanian ecclesiastical past 9 During the period i892-ig o5 new conflicts arose between the churches of Romania and Constantinople over ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the regions of Epiros and Macedonia. The Romanians raised claims over Vlach-speaking communities, which they wanted to bring under the control of Romanian authorities on...

Andrea Alciati Witch Hunts

(Apologia Dodi contra li defensori de le strie Pavia, 1506), and with Bernardo Rategno (c. 1450-1510), the chief Inquisitor of the diocese of Como, one of those responsible for the Italian persecutions raised his voice, adding many new examples to the debate (Bernard of Como, De Strigibus, 1508). There was a political rift between the church and states that tried to curb witch hunts wherever possible, for instance the Republic of Venice. This conflict was mirrored in the intellectual sphere for example, philosophers sharply criticized the mass persecutions in the Italian alpine valleys in short treatises, such as that written by Gianfrancesco Ponzinibio (De Lamiis, 1520) from the University of Padua, who was famous for his denial of the immortality of the soul.

Redefining Catholicism Trent and beyond

About four o'clock on the afternoon of 4 December 1563, the 235 voting members of the Council of Trent processed from the Palazzo Thun across to the cathedral where the Bishop of Catania celebrated the Mass of the Holy Spirit. There followed a vote approving overwhelmingly the five reform decrees that had been formulated in the previous weeks. Next, the full text of the doctrinal decrees that the council had approved over the last eighteen years was read out, followed by the initial paragraphs of the reform decrees. The bishop then put two questions to the assembled fathers were they agreed that the council be declared at an end and that confirmation ofall its decrees be sought from Pope Pius IV in Rome To the first the fathers reiterated the affirmative response given the previous day. Their similar response to the second question, with one dissenting vote, implied a clear recognition of papal authority and signified a notable victory for the papacy. To the unrestrained joy of the...

The Catholic Reformation

The response of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation is often described as two interrelated movements. One, a Counter-Reformation that attempted to win territory and people back to loyalty to Rome and prevent further spread of Protestant ideas, and the other a reform of abuses and problems within the Catholic Church that had been recognized as problems by many long before the Protestant Reformation. Thus the Catholic Reformation was both a continuation of medieval reform movements and a new crusade. Women were actively involved in both movements, but their actions were generally judged more acceptable when they were part of a reform drive even more than the medieval crusades, the fight against Protestants was to be a masculine affair. The masculine nature of the Counter-Reformation was intimately related to one of the key aspects of church reform - an enforcement of cloistering for women. Reforms of the church beginning with the Gregorian in the eleventh

Art and liturgy in the later Byzantine Empire

It is generally assumed that by the eleventh century the text of the Byzantine liturgy was well established and was performed in a consistent manner throughout much ofthe Greek-speakingworld. Forthe Eucharist, this assumption is essentially true, though some evolution was still to take place with the widespread adoption of the Eucharistic liturgy of John Chrysostom in preference to that of St Basil and with the expansion of the prothesis rite, that is, the prefatory rite before the beginning of the Eucharist. For the feasts of the church year, however, this is less true, as new poetic pieces were still being composed for, and saints being added to, the basic calendar of commemorations even after the end of the empire. Of most importance for the history of the liturgy in this period was the merging of the liturgy of the Great Church of Constantinople with Palestinian monastic rites a process which started in the ninth century and was only completed in the twelfth. The pomp and...

The New Testament and Beyond

The baptized knew themselves to be assumed once and for all into the dying and rising of Christ, who had himself referred to his coming death as a 'baptism' (Mark 10 38 Luke 12 50). Having become God's adopted sons and daughters, they were initiated into the Church, 'a people claimed by God' (1 Pet. 2 9 10). Their 'old self was crucified with him Christ , so that the sinful self might be destroyed' and they 'might no longer be enslaved to sin' (Rom. 6 6). Baptism, therefore, called on them to 'make no provision for the flesh' nor 'gratify its desires' (Rom. 13 14). There was no room for half measures. Their rebirth through water and the Holy Spirit meant believing tenaciously in the 'good news', by which they were to be saved, provided they held fast to it (1 Cor. 15 1-2). They were to live to the full the gift of baptism, and refrain from all behaviour that failed to witness to their new life. Like birth itself and the coming resurrection from the dead, the rebirth and new life of...

Ritual In Early Modern Christianity

Hooker, Richard, Of the laws of ecclesiastical polity. Ed. R. W Church (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1905). Catterall, Douglas, 'The rituals of Reformed discipline managing honor and conflict in the Scottish Church of Rotterdam, 1643-1665', Archive for Reformation History 94 (2003) 194-222.

Down to the Present Presence Sacrifice and Participation

Despite the lack of serious controversy for many centuries, Church writers attended to the change that occurs in the elements used to celebrate the Eucharist in the liturgical assembly. How should one express that change when the elements obviously continue to look like bread and wine What new presence of the crucified and risen Jesus takes place through the epiclesis and the words of institution from the Last Supper 170 By that time the Western Church was well on the way to a Mass at which only the presider communicated, and in which the sacramental action was considered to be the recital of Jesus' words from the institution narrative. With the movements initiated by John Wyclif (d. 1384), by John Huss (d. 1415), and, even more, by the sixteenth-century Reformers, controversy over the eucharistic presence broke out again. Martin Luther (1483 1546) proposed a doctrine of 'consubstantiation', according to which after the consecration both the bread and wine and...

The Material And The Spiritual

Through the seven sacraments of the Church, things that we see, hear, touch, taste, and smell bring us the divine truth and power. The water poured in baptism, bread and wine consecrated at the Eucharist, hands imposed in ordination, oil smeared on the foreheads and hands of the sick, bodies joined in matrimony, and the other perceptible signs that constitute the sacraments communicate various spiritual blessings and a share in the life of the tripersonal God. The Church's sacraments transfigure material things and actions of a world which is already 'charged with the grandeur of God' (Gerard Manley Hopkins, 'God's Grandeur'). receive on their foreheads on Ash Wednesday and the palms they carry home on Palm Sunday. In the proper sense, sacramentals are holy practices, prayers, and things officially approved and blessed in the Catholic Church. They include some of traditions that were fostered by Franciscans and Dominicans and have never lost their popularity for instance, making the...

The Expansion of Europe

The discoveries initiated by Columbus in 1492 revealed the existence of millions of human beings in societies that had gone on for many centuries without the slightest chance of hearing about Jesus Christ and joining the Church. The arrival of Europeans in the Americas raised with new rigour the issue of universal participation in the benefits of Christ's redemption. How could he have been the Saviour for the indigenous peoples of the Americas How could they have shared in his redemptive grace without even hearing his name 44 In Salvation outside the Church (London Geoffrey Chapman, 1992), Frank Sullivan describes well how Columbus's discovery raised questions about the salvation of those By 1620 thirty-six bishoprics and countless parishes in Central and South America served the Spanish settlers, Indian converts, and other groups, with everything under the control of two viceroys one in Peru and the other in New Spain (Mexico). Through the viceroys the running of the colonial state...

To the Protestant Reformation

Various lights and shadows characterize any stocktaking we care to make about the theory and practice of the Church's life from the third to the sixteenth century. The seven general councils, from Nicaea I in 325 to Nicaea II in 787, proved lastingly fruitful in laying down the main lines for Christian faith in Christ and the tripersonal God. The Creed that came from Constantinople I in 381 spread in the East and West, and became commonly professed at the Eucharist, as well as being used by Eastern Christians at baptism. But after the time of the Patriarch Photius in the ninth century, the unilateral addition in the West of the Filioque ('from the Son)' became a running sore in relations between Catholics and Orthodox (see Chs. 1 and 4). For some centuries the sacraments of initiation were administered together. But then, in Western Christianity, baptism, First Communion, and confirmation could be separated by years any lively sense of a single rite of passage through which new...

Inductive Power Transfer

Study of the Bible and of different treatises on the eucharist that led him to side with the Reformed and see the Lutherans as given to excessive theological nit-picking and invective. Between 1563 and 1571, he instituted a new church order with simplified eucharistic and baptismal services, sponsored the drafting of the Heidelberg Catechism that espoused a spiritual understanding of Christ's presence in the eucharist and a strict interpretation of the Second Commandment as prohibiting all images in church, and, after intense local debate, accepted a system of parish-based church discipline that gave elders the power to suspend people from communion. Over the next three decades, second reformations also took place in Nassau-Dillenberg, Anhalt, Hesse-Kassel, and a number of smaller territories between Heidelberg and the Dutch border. In some of these cases, the changes merely involved liturgical transformations and the introduction of the Heidelberg Catechism. In others consistorial...

Paschalis M Kitrqmilides

The militancy ofthe Orthodox Church's response to western ideological influences on Orthodox society during the first and third patriarchates of Gregory V (1797-99,1818-21) has created among many observers the false impression of a consistent and clear-cut opposition between the Orthodox Church and the Enlightenment. This has obscured the long tradition of fashioning its ecclesiastical, pastoral and educational strategy in a way that accommodated the Enlightenment. What is in fact indicated by the reactions of the Orthodox Church to the French Revolution in the late 1790s and to the Greek Revolution in the 1820s is the conflict between Orthodoxy and nationalism. While the Enlightenment confronted the church with a secular universalist ideology, which, questions of doctrine aside, could in some instances complement and even sustain its own ecumenical values, nationalism gave rise to a conflict, where the issues not only were on the level of secular versus transcendental values but also...

Design Institute Class

The Catholic Church Today historians discuss whether the label Counter-Reformation has any validity.23 In the flowering of Catholic preaching from the middle of the sixteenth century, however, I still choose to see a certain urgent acknowledgment that Protestant pedagogical tools must be adopted and adapted in order to prevent the further spread of 'heresy'. The Society of Jesus and the Capuchins honed their homiletic skills, developing formal methods of training for those who would go out as missionaries to the common people of Europe. As a result of the Catholic Church's new emphasis on preaching, despite the remaining centrality of the traditional mass, the elaborate and costly pulpit became a Catholic symbol too. The post-Tridentine Catholic Church strove not so much to revise Catholic ceremony as to make it uniform. The so-called Tridentine Missal was its first effort to ensure liturgical purity. In 1588 Sixtus V founded the Congregation of Sacred Rites, which was to oversee the...

Albania Archbishop Mail

Church, which includes people of all races within it.21 The destructive potential of ethnic nationalism has been seen in many countries in the years since 1990, most tragically in the Balkans, although it must be acknowledged that here the churches have also provided a courageous witness for peace and reconciliation. New nations also pose a challenge to church organisation and force the question of whether a new nation necessarily requires a new church. In the new republic of the Ukraine, the second largest country in Europe, there are at present four churches - the Moscow patriarchate with its strength in the east, a new patriarchate in Kiev, an alternative autocephalous Orthodox Church in the west, and a Greek Catholic Church also in the west. A good example of a fully local church is providedby Albania, a small country with only 3.5 million inhabitants, in which the church suffered extreme persecution under a communist government between 1944 and 1990. There were, for example, no...

By The Archbishop of Canterbury

The average educated westerner is still quite likely to think of Christianity in terms of a basically western Europe-dominated history the church gradually builds up a centralised system of authority, filling the vacuum left by the fall of the Roman Empire its ideological monopoly is challenged at the Reformation, and the map of the Christian world is reconfigured and all the various territories on that map are now engaged in a doubtfully successful struggle with global modernity, except where the newer churches of Africa are mounting a vigorous counter-offensive. Even in some good and sophisticated surveys of world Christianity published in recent years, this remains the dominant picture. But the Byzantine world is only part of the story. For most of their history, nearly all those churches that broke with Byzantium for doctrinal reasons or that had always been outside the political reach ofthe Empire lived as minorities in a Muslim society. It was not always a nakedly hostile...

The Renaissance search for a pious philosophy

Marsilio Ficino (1433-99) championed Plato in developing a philosophical system complete enough to rival Aristotle's. In addition to voluminous translations of and commentaries on Plato, Ficino offered his own synthesis of Christianity and Platonism in his Theologia platonica (composed around 1474, published in 1482). He contrasted this 'pious philosophy' with what he considered the impieties of scholastic Aristotelianism.10 Ficino revived the arguments of St Augustine in claiming that Plato's teachings on the individual immortality of the soul and on the creation of the world by a divine Demiurge made his philosophy more easily reconciled with Christianity. But the fit was not perfect, given Plato's belief in the transmigration of souls and the fact that the creation described in the Timaeus was not a creation ex nihilo, but rather from pre-existing matter. Platonic philosophy remained an option which appealed to a few thinkers like Symphorien Champier in France (c. 1470-1539) or...

The Byzantine force field

If the political culture and behavioural patterns which Byzantium prompted in so-called 'acquiring' societies are almost as notable for their diversity as for common traits, this reflects upon the ambivalence and flexibility of Byzantium's own imperial-ecclesiastical complex. The emperor's aspirations to carry on the divine mandate of Constantine the Great and lead the New Israel in the manner of Old Testament priest-kings remained robust, even after imperial intervention in doctrine and church governance came to grief with icono-clasm. The insistence of court ceremonial and rhetorical declarations on the harmony between emperor and senior churchmen represents the gloss on incessant minor points of friction in everyday affairs and more fundamental differences as to boundaries and values.106 The emperor's hold over the established church, already uncertain in the twelfth century, was shaken irreparably by the Latin conquest of Constantinople. The subsequent failure of Michael VIII's...

The commonality of Mount Athos and a Slavonic textual community

The Serb monastery of Chilandar became the scene of intensive copying and the translating of Greek texts into a literary language with South Slav characteristics but of sufficient clarity and consistency to be comprehensible to all readers and speakers of Slavonic, including the Rus. A Bulgarian-born monk writing among the Serbs around 1418, Constantine of Kostenets, remarked that there were only two centres producing Slavonic texts that faithfully reproduced the style and content of their Greek originals one of these was Mount Athos and the other was Veliko T'rnovo.81 This had been the seat of the Bulgarians' patriarch and tsar, but by the second half of the fourteenth century the overriding concern of its churchmen seems to have been to improve their religious texts through reference to Greek originals, praising Greek for its inherent elegance and precision as a language, and also translating prayers, hymns and other liturgical offices recently composed by Greek-speaking Byzantines....

The search for salvation

Through financial contributions to churches, the faithful were able to build tombs and guarantee commemorative services for the deceased. In order to secure ongoing prayers for their souls, very wealthy laypeople might construct funerary chapels as architectural appendages to important monasteries or guarantee, through donations, their burial within the walls of important ecclesiastical foundations. City dwellers could also seek salvation and commemoration through more modest financial contributions. In Kastoria and Berroia, for example, churches of the middle and late Byzantine period still preserve the colourful portraits of male and female worshippers who were buried in tombs positioned along the buildings' exterior. Elongated funeral icons from Cyprus and monumental portraits on Crete and Rhodes equally record the names and portraits ofdeceased Christians who were buried within and around Orthodox churches. Burial patterns in villages mirror those from urban contexts, though on a...

The Path to Vatican II

The teaching remained, however, incomplete. The outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War and the advance of the Piedmontese troops on Rome forced the Council to adjourn hastily after defining the papal primacy of jurisdiction and infallibility, but without discussing and voting on an additional, longer document, which had been prepared to give more complete teaching on the Church as a whole. Italian troops seized Rome on 20 September 1870, and a month later the Council was formally suspended and never reconvened.200 This turn of events left much unfinished business, including reflection on the Church's mission to evangelize the world. Sixty-seven other missionary bishops joined Blessed Daniele Comboni (1831 81) in presenting for the Council's discussion a stirring petition on behalf of the Black Populations of Central Africa. As regards evangelization and other aspects of doctrine on the Church, Vatican I left behind a lopsided view that highlighted the central mission of the pope...

Thomas A Brady

German Protestantism began when Martin Luther's call to reform the church, with and then against the papacy, met rejection and resistance by the Emperor Charles V, the bishops, and other rulers. The resulting evangelical movement supplied ideas and motives to allied movements in other kingdoms, some partly successful (France, Poland, and Hungary) and some generally so (England, Scotland, Denmark, and Sweden). German Protestantism was locally a success but nationally a failure, as the very condition that encouraged its survival -permanently dispersed governance - set limits to its power to spread across the Holy Roman Empire. It formed, instead, two communities of religious belief and practices, or confessions, the Lutheran and the Reformed or 'Calvinist'. Their legal coexistence with the old church was framed in 1555 by the Religious Peace of Augsburg and revised in 1648 by the Peace ofWestphalia. This outcome was essentially complete by 1600.

Communal Reformation

The proposal to describe the Reformation as 'communal Reformation' in the Upper German area prior to the mid-1520s and its 'integration into the state' (Verstaatlichung) by the princes is rooted in the fact that both peasants and burghers made the same demands of the church and of religion in general that the pure gospel be preached as a condition for salvation and that the priests, chosen by the commune, were to arbitrate on the correct form of teaching in cases of schism. This logically led to the equality of priests and

Info

The mother church of the Clerks Regular of Saint Paul (CRSP) in Milan was dedicated to St Barnabas, so they quickly became known as the Barnabites. Saint Antonio Zaccaria (1502-39) with eight disciples started living as a community in 1530. Although trained in law and medicine, Zaccaria became involved in charitable work in his native Cremona after ordination to the priesthood in 1528 he shifted his work to Milan. Initially the Barnabites took no vows, but in 1533 they successfully requested papal permission to take the three traditional vows and live as a religious community. Their rule, first drafted in 1542, received its final form in 1579. Their spiritual mentor was the Dominican friar Carione de Crema, but he became suspected of heresy, and the public self-flagellations practised by Zaccaria and his disciples alienated many people. They were expelled from Venetian territory in 1551. Although Paul III vindicated them after an examination in 1535, suspicion and hostility slowed...

Stella Rock

The chronological span of this chapter begins with the victory of Grand Prince Dmitrii of Moscow over a Tatar army at Kulikovo Field, a battle supposedly blessed by St Sergii of Radonezh and recognised as a defining spiritual, as well as political, moment in the life of the nation as many disparate responses over the intervening centuries bear witness, from the near-contemporary versions of the Kulikovo Tale (Zadonshchina)1 to Aleksandr Blok's classic poetic cycle On Kulikovo Field and the canonisation in 1988 of Dmitrii (honoured with the title Donskoi, 'ofthe Don'). Ourperiod ends with the creation ofthe Russianpatriar-chate, formal recognition ofthe autocephalous status ofthe Russian Orthodox Church, shortly to be followed by the extinction of the first Russian royal dynasty and the 'Time of Troubles'. The interim period represents the gradual formation of what is generally called 'national consciousness' the spiritual, cultural and political transformation of a disparate...

Ute Lotzheumann

Social and church discipline are historiographical concepts which have been developed to describe a general trend exhibited by all states and confessional churches during the early modern period of establishing control mechanisms over their subjects or flock. Originally, the concept of social discipline (or disciplining) was developed by Gerhard Oestreich as an alternative to the etatistic term 'absolutism'. Oestreich described 'social disciplining' (Sozial-disziplinierung) as a process in which, based on neo-stoic philosophy, the early modern state strove to control the behaviour of its subjects in all areas of life, thus turning them into 'obedient, pious, and diligent subjects'.1 The concept of 'social discipline' was also taken up by historians working on the religious history of early modern Europe. 'Church discipline', the very diverse measures used by the confessional churches of early modern Europe to discipline their flock, was consequently regarded as part of the larger...

Lactatio Virginis

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, both within the convents, where the institutional version prevailed, and without, where the charismatic aspect was rather more present, a particular form of female teaching, which we could define as spiritual maternity, was present and active as a recognized element of sanctity. It is well known, in fact, that a nun from the convent of Santa Croce in Brescia was considered mother by Gaetano da Thiene, one of the founders of the Order of the Clerics Regular Theatines so too, Paola Antonia Negri, first teacher of the Angelics, a female branch of the first Regular Clerics of Saint Paul (known as the Barnabites), who kept, until her imprisonment in a convent, the title of Divina Madre Maestra (Divine Mother Teacher), which she had been called due to unconditional faith in her charisma as spiritual guide.17 Not even the Jesuits were exempt from the influence of charismatics, whom they considered examples, until the authority of the Roman Church...

The Councils

Chapter 1 traced the developments in Christology and trinitarian teaching that ran from the First Council of Nicaea (325), through the Council of Chalcedon (451) and down to the Second Council of Nicaea (787). Nicaea I defended the true divinity of the Son who is 'generated', but not created, by the Father and shares such essential divine attributes as eternal existence. Constantinople I (381), as well as upholding the divinity of the Holy Spirit, rejected the teaching of Apollinarius of Laodicaea and so maintained that the Son had assumed a full humanity, including a rational soul. By defending the use of Theotokos (Mother of God) as a title for Mary, the Council of Ephesus (431) underlined the unity of Christ's humanity and divinity his being human is not separated from his being divine. Twenty years later the Council of Chalcedon added that Christ is one person in two natures., with his humanity and divinity remaining distinct and not being confused. In passing let us underline the...

Radoslav Hlapen

When the Byzantine state was struggling for its very existence, the monasteries of Mount Athos prospered thanks to the modus vivendi established with the Ottomans. If anything, donations of property to the monasteries increased. They were often not so much acts of devotion, as a means of safeguarding property by placing it under the protection of a monastic foundation, which had a special relation with the prospective conqueror. This need was especially great after the battle of Maritsa in 1371, when the whole of Macedonia and the southern Balkans was continuously overrun by bands of Turkish warriors.17 Instructive is the family history of Radoslav Hlapen, the Serbian lord of Edessa (Vodena) and Berroia, who was related to Tsar Stefan Dusan (1331-55).18 His estates did not go directly to the monasteries of Athos, but his heirs ensured that the religious foundations situated within his territories passed under Athonite control, on the understanding that their properties would now be...

Conclusion

All the same, there is no evidence that overburdened consciences were a common problem in late medieval Catholicism. True, the church had strategies for dealing with 'scrupulosity', but in general this was a fringe phenomenon usually associated with monks like Luther. Medieval critics of the church, both heretics and Catholic reformers, had seen the problem quite differently.18 Consciences were not burdened enough. Catholicism was not too demanding rather it was not demanding enough. Though theologians had argued about the roles of human freedom and God's grace, even the 18 Oakley, Western Church in the later Middle Ages Lambert, Medieval heresy.

Alexander J Fisher

Between the beginning of the Lutheran Reformation and the end of the Thirty Years' War sacred music in early modern Europe underwent several waves of transformation, responding partly to the dramatic religious upheavals of the period and partly to changes in aesthetic taste and compositional technique. The most fundamental aspect of these changes - significant both to religious context and musical structure - was a new relationship of music to the word, whether scriptural or otherwise. Late medieval composers, writing music for the mass liturgy and motets for a variety of sacred functions, had focused their energies on exploiting the possibilities of intricate, and to the listener obscure, musical structures, abstract patterns of sound based on tunes whose provenance (secular or sacred) or inherent significance was of relatively little importance. Likewise, for the medieval laity the Latin words sung by church choirs had represented the sacred authority of scripture and liturgy, but...

Catholic science

Although Draper and White, both Protestants, were delighted to point to Catholicism as the first source of the conflict between science and religion, there was no indication of such a conflict prior to the Galileo Affair. In many ways the Catholic Church and its medieval antecedent offered a favourable context for the development of natural philosophy - though not, as Duhem had argued, through the condemnations of 1277. Those early condemnations had been meant to thwart the entry of Aristotle into the university curriculum and might well have done so, had they not been undercut by the success of the skilful Christianization of Aristotle offered by Thomas Aquinas. Instead the church fostered the development of science by adopting many features of Aristotelian methodology and in posing questions about nature in the teaching of theology itself, spurring debate and discussion on, among other questions,

Donald Crummey

Ethiopia claims one of the oldest national traditions in Christendom. In the second quarter of the fourth century, the Ethiopian king, Ezana, together with his court, converted to Christianity. At the request of Ezana, St Athanasios, bishop of Alexandria, appointed Ethiopia's first bishop. Royal initiative thus founded a national church episcopally dependent on Alexandria. We know little about the pace of popular conversion, but Christianity did become embedded in the farming communities of the Ethiopian highlands, where it remains a deeply popular religion.1 Royal dominance and popular commitment were the two poles of historic Ethiopian Christianity. Performing the role of mediator between these were, on the one hand, the Egyptian-appointed bishops, and on the other - and more importantly - the monasteries, which dotted the landscape, both geographical and cultural. 1 For this, as for so many other issues, see the masterly work by Taddesse Tamrat, Church and state in Ethiopia,...

Anthony Omahony

The term Syriac Christianity refers to the various Middle Eastern and Indian churches which belong to the Syriac tradition. Since late antiquity they have divided liturgically and doctrinally into three main groups the Syrian Orthodox Church1 sometimes known erroneonsly as the Jacobite Church, which has rejected the doctrinal definition of the council of Chalcedon (451) and insists on the oneness of humanity and divinity in the incarnate Christ the Church of the East,2 sometimes known wrongly as the Nestorian or Assyrian Church, which has on different grounds rejected the council of Chalcedon, essentially because it did not distinguish strictly enough between the two natures in Christ and finally the Maronites of the Lebanon, who have come to accept the definitions of Chalcedon. Cutting across this scheme has been the creation of eastern rite Catholic churches.3 The term 'Syrian' used here to designate individual churches is thus much broader than the geographical area of modern...

Sergei Hackel

The question of diaspora is proposed for the agenda of the long-delayed 'great and holy' council of the Orthodox Church. Indeed, since 1976 it has been given pride of place in that agenda it is a question that needs to be resolved 'as quickly as possible'.1 In the absence of any such resolution there is a wide range of factors, ecclesiological as well as pastoral, which will continue to frustrate the Orthodox at large.

Chris Chulos

Peter the Great's desire to transform his empire through a broad array of modernising reforms helped to shape the course of Russian history for the next two centuries. Among the great leader's notable achievements, the construction of a European-style capital facing westwards, the creation of a standing army, the introduction of a regularised system of taxation and the reorganisation of higher education often overshadow the importance of Peter's reform of the Orthodox faith. Tension between secular and religious authority was not new to Russia. The destructive conclusion of the mid-seventeenth-century struggle between the overbearing Patriarch Nikon and Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich ostensibly over reforms in ritual practice ended disastrously for the patriarch, who was unseated, and for the church, which was rent by schism. Those accepting reform were considered to be proper Orthodox Christians, while those defending the existing rituals were soon branded Old Believers, Old Ritualists or...

Robert O Crummey

The age of the Counter-Reformation was a time of bitter conflict in the eastern Orthodox churches in Ukraine and Russia. Rooted in societies with radically different political systems, cultural heritages and confessional traditions, Orthodox leaders and faithful in the two countries responded to the inspiration and pressure of reformed Roman Catholicism in apparently contradictory ways. At the same time, over the course of the seventeenth century, they discovered that their fates were inextricably linked for better or worse. Moreover, they constituted two points in a triangular relationship in spite of its vulnerable position, the ecumenical patriarchate continued to enjoy much of its traditional prestige and considerable practical influence in both. Both of the East Slavic Orthodox Churches reflected the political, social and spiritual issues of the society of which they were integral parts. In Russia the Orthodox Church was the only legal Christian confession. Following the...

General works

Angold, Michael, Church and society in Byzantium under the Comneni 1081-1261 (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1995) Chadwick, Henry, East and West the making of a rift in the church from apostolic times until the Council of Florence Oxford History of the Church (Oxford Oxford University Press, 2003)

Torture

216 For useful summaries and bibliographies see 'Usury', Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church , 1672 3, and T. F. Divine, 'Usury', New Catholic Encyclopedia , xiv. 498 500. See also S. L. Buckley, Teaching on Usury in Judaism, Christianity and Islam (Lewiston, NY Edwin Mellen Press, 2000). The question of lending money has acquired an international face, with many countries suffering a crippling burden from the interest charged on loans. The medieval concern about interest exploiting the poor has assumed a fresh meaning.

Conversion To Christ

With a view to the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 and the start of the third millennium, special assemblies of bishops from each of the five continents took place in Rome the Assembly for Africa (1994), America (1997), Asia (1998), Oceania (1998), and Europe (1991 and 1999).250 These assemblies, along with the 'apostolic exhortations' that Pope John Paul II published later on the basis of their work and recommendations, mirror the present state and future hopes of the Catholic Church around the world. The bishops, like committed Christians everywhere, wanted above all to promote among believers, and in particular among Catholics, a more vital encounter with the living Christ. Ecclesia in America ('The Church in America') of 22 January 1999, the exhortation in which the Pope drew together the proceedings of the 1997 Assembly for America, highlighted the encounter with the living Jesus Christ as the path to a radical conversion for the Catholics of North, Central, and South America....

Joseph Bryennios

Romanian church), 240 Kallinikos V (ecumenical patriarch), 208 Kallistos (ecumenical patriarch), 2i, 26,38, 39, 43, i25 Kepoula, church of the Holy Anargyroi at, 97 Kereit, 386 K'esisean, Aram, 453 influenced by 226 Khrapovitskii, Antonii, 341,343, 553 Khrushchev Nikita, 548, 570 Khwarizmians, 402 Kiev. See Ukraine Kievan cave-monastery Bars'kyjborn near, 210 Dormition churches, beliefs regarding, 282 Isaac of,48 Kollyvades renewal movement, 588 Kolomenskoe, church of the Ascension at,

Decentralization

Many committed Catholics and not a few other Christians judge that the Catholic Church has become over-centralized, with too much power being exercised by those who run offices for the pope in the Roman Curia. The Second Vatican Council endorsed the principle of episcopal collegiality, or the role of bishops who together form a teaching, priestly, and pastoral college and who in communion with the bishop of Rome bear responsibility for the worldwide Church. Occasionally, when a general council of the Church takes place, the bishops meet to exercise this collegial role in a solemn fashion. But they exercise this role also, albeit in a more limited way, when they assemble in national conferences to plan policies and take decisions for the Catholic Church in their country. The revolution in world communications and transport has made the Catholic Church also a kind of global village. Contacts with offices in the Roman Curia through letters, faxes, phone calls, and e-mails have been...

What I7 Discipline

The conflicts, the negotiations, and the accommodations regarding places ofworship, however, only generated part of the conflict between confessions about the symbolic use of space. It is therefore necessary to remember the importance of tensions that surrounded the question of burial and funeral marches or processions. These tensions arose because rival confessions tried to keep for themselves these particular forms ofpublic expressions offaith that translated into the appropriation of territory, the rogation of sacralizing space, the visible delimitation of the community of believers.35 In many Protestant-controlled areas the processions, and particularly that of Corpus Christi, which associated religious definition of the community with the eucharistic miracle, were forbidden 36 in Augsburg, for example, from 1555 to 1606, or again in La Rochelle afterthe Edict of Nantes. In 1599, the magistrate of La Rochelle agreed to concede the question of the mass and to authorize it anew, but...

Simon Dixon

Under pressure ofrevolutionary upheaval, the system ofRussian ecclesiastical government established by Peter I in 1721 was swiftly dismantled in 1917. On 5 August the Provisional Government abolished the holy synod. Ten days later, an all-Russian church council gathered in Moscow in the hope of securing strong leadership in troubled times. Having determined to restore the patriarchate before the Bolshevik seizure of power, the delegates drew lots on 5 November to appoint Metropolitan Tikhon (Bellavin) from an elected shortlist of three to an office last held in 1700. Though circumstances forced Tikhon into crisis management rather than strategic direction, there was plenty of practical significance for the council to discuss the synod had not only retained jurisdiction over marriage and divorce, but also continued to manage its own consistory courts, ecclesiastical schools, and the censorship ofreligiousbooks.1 Yet few churchmen were satisfied by mere administrative autonomy.2 Many...

John Binns

The study of Christian spirituality investigates the self-understanding, the identity and the mode of operation of the church. It is founded on the church's formation narratives, which identify its foundation with the gift of the Holy Spirit. This is clear from the fourth gospel, which tells how, on the day of the Resurrection, Christ breathed on his disciples with the words 'receive the Holy Spirit' (John 20 22), while St Luke recounts how, on the day of Pentecost, the mission of the church began with the coming of the Spirit on the disciples in the form of wind and fire (Acts 2 1-4). So we are shown that the work of the Spirit guides this newly formed community in a variety of ways, such as the proclaiming of the word, mighty works of healing and power, and the formation of a disciplined and ordered community. Spirituality is the discipline which describes and examines the process of how the church subsists, how it understands and defines itself, how it structures and shapes its...

Luther and reform

The catalyst of the Protestant Reformation was the German Augustinian monk and university professor, Martin Luther (1483-1546). In the late medieval church, calls for renewal were loud and persistent and some reforms were enacted in monastic orders, in church life, and in popular movements associated with the names of John Wyclif (1384-1443) and John Hus (1369-1415). Compared with those strident voices, Martin Luther's invitation to an academic debate on the power of indulgences in 1517 was a subdued summons. True, Luther had already been preaching against the indulgence practice and clerical negligence, but to call the young professor of biblical studies a church reformer prior to his circulation of the Ninety-five Theses would be an exaggeration. In the famous theses of 1517, the last thing on Luther's mind was reform of the entire church. Yet Luther has gone down in history as the first Protestant reformer because of the conflict with the Roman curia that was ignited by those...