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Evocation of a Living Spirit by a Shaman Witnessed by the Writer

But the day on which the stone spoke came very soon. It was during the most critical hours of our life at a time when the vagabond nature of a traveller had carried the writer to far-off lands, where neither civilization is known, nor security can be guaranteed for one hour. One afternoon, as every man and woman had left the yourta (Tartar tent), that had been our home for over two months, to witness the ceremony of the Lamai'c exorcism of a Tshoutgour,* accused of breaking and spiriting away every bit of the poor furniture and earthenware of a family living about two miles distant, the Shaman, who had become our only protector in those dreary deserts, was reminded of his promise. He sighed and hesitated but, after a short silence, left his place on the After that, placing his hand in his bosom, he drew out the little stone, about the size of a walnut, and, carefully unwrapping it, proceeded, as it appeared, to swallow it. In a few moments his limbs stiffened, his body became rigid,...

What Is Inspiration

Biblical inspiration may be defined as God's superintending of the human authors so that, using their own individual personalities (and even their writing styles), they composed and recorded without error His revelation to man in the words of the original autographs. Inspiration means that the Holy Spirit of God superintended the human writers in the production of Scripture so that what they wrote was precisely what God wanted written.

Jesus The True High Priest

Consider this question Why does the writer spend so much time delineating the particular work of the priests in the two apartments of the tabernacle on earth And why does he solemnly affirm that the Holy Spirit is teaching something special by that two-phase ministry Because immediately Paul begins to describe the very same two-apartment work that Jesus would do in the heavenly sanctuary. Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us. Hebrews 9 12.

The Emergence of Anglicanism

One of the most remarkable and, owing to the happenstances of imperial history, influential forms of Protestantism emerged in England. Careful historical analysis of the origins and development of Anglicanism has been hindered to no small extent by the lingering agendas of religiously biased writers who, in attempting to perpetuate their own accounts of the English Reformation, have been primarily motivated by vested interests over what Anglicanism ought to be.1 Many nineteenth-century Anglican writers sympathetic to the High Church revival movement often known as Tractarianism or the Oxford Movement were dismissive of any suggestion that this most English form of Christianity could be considered Protestant and pointed to the roots of their Anglo-Catholicism in the early seventeenth century. It is

New Testament Theology

This series sets out to provide a programmatic survey of the individual writings of the New Testament. It aims to remedy the deficiency of available published material which concentrates on the New Testament writers' theological concerns. New Testament specialists here write at greater length than is usually possible in the introduction to commentaries or as part of other New Testament theologies, and explore the theological themes and issues of their chosen books without being tied to a commentary format, or to a thematic structure provided from elsewhere. When complete, the series will cover all the New Testament writings, and will thus provide an attractive, and timely, range of texts around which courses can be developed.

Knowledge of Jesus Teaching and Agrapha

To complete the review of sources for the teaching of Jesus we should also refer to specific references to such teaching in Paul (1 Cor. 7.10-11 9.14 11.23-25) and to the likelihood that Paul and other early letter writers alluded to the traditions of Jesus' teaching on several occasions. The question however is somewhat complex and is best left till later ( 8.1e).

The Growth of the Kingdom

At this point some will object If Jesus is King now, why aren't all the nations converted Why is there so much ungodliness Why isn't everything perfect In the first place, there's no if about it. Jesus is the King, and His Kingdom has arrived. The Bible says so. In the second place, things will never be perfect before the Last Judgment, and even the millennium described by certain popular writers is far from perfect (in fact, theirs is far worse for they teach that the nations will never truly be converted, but will only feign conversion while waiting for their chance to rebel). Reading the Bible in terms of the Paradise theme can deepen our understanding of even the most familiar passages of Scripture. Suddenly we can understand why Psalm 80 and Isaiah 5, for example, describe the covenant people as the Lord's vineyard. As we have seen, this was a reminder of man's original state of communion with God in the Garden. It was also a reminder that when God saves His people, He...

Inspiration Of The Scriptures I Definition Of Inspiration

Inspiration is that influence of the Spirit of God upon the minds of the Scripture writers which made their writings the record of a progressive divine revelation, sufficient, when taken together and interpreted by the same Spirit who inspired them, to lead every honest inquirer to Christ and to salvation.

Studies in Sociology and History

Bainbridge have been studying the impact of secularization in religion and religious movements.82 In an attempt to explain religion as an ubiquitous force of human behavior, these writers have explored various facets of religion such as cult formation, magic, fundamentalist revival, the evolution of the concepts of God and religion, and many other issues. Their efforts especially in establishing the empirical nature of their inquiry have bolstered the foundation of the economics of religion.83 Even as they search for principles rooted in sociological premises (e.g., the social effects of power and its distribution), a growing number of contemporary sociologists have incorporated economic methodology into their studies.

The Second Literature

With the publication of Concluding Unscientific Postscript, which posed the problem of the whole authorship, namely how to become a Christian, Kierkegaard thought that he had reached the end of his career as a writer. On the contrary, this work became 'the turning point' that initiated a new burst of writing, often referred to as his 'second literature' (PV 55).72 Most of these works were explicitly religious and or Christian in character and were published in his own name as author except for a few that presented Christianity in its strictest, most ideal sense, thus representing an existential position higher than he personally embodied. This flood of new writings, some of which were published posthumously or not at all, included Two Ages A Literary Review (1846), The Book on Adler (1846 7), 'The Single Individual' Two 'Notes' Concerning My Work as an Author (1846-9), Upbuilding Discourses in Various Spirits (1847), Works of Love (1847), Christian Discourses (1848), The Crisis and a...

Accidental fulfillment of prophecies

The New Testament writers cite messianic prophecies from the Old Testament more than 130 times. By some estimates the Old Testament contains 300 prophetic passages that describe who the Messiah is and what He will do. Of these, 60 are major prophecies. What are the chances of these prophecies being fulfilled in one person

The Need for Two Witnesses

A witness is someone who gives testimony. A biblical writer is giving his testimony that he has written what God told him to write. And a testament is another word for testimony. So the bible, new and old, is just a series of testimonies. It's one witness, the Spirit is the second one

Theology Is Hellenized

Clement of Alexandria, with his theory of gnosis, is a perfect example of the new approach. But even before him we have the early apologists, who bear clear witness to the gradual transition. They do not neglect history completely. Justin, for example, takes the history of the chosen people into account. He, like other writers, used the argument from antiquity-trying to show that the Jews were more ancient than Homer and the early Greek sages because they originated with Abraham.

The final form of the text

We may ask what the text says to a receptive reader (and indeed what it has said in the past to such readers - here too, reception history has its part to play). And we also ask how the text works on us by what literary mechanisms it conveys the effects it does. This may be an (historical) interest in the writer and his techniques, but more commonly now it consists of asking about the text's own structures, the intention of the work (in Umberto Eco's phrase). People now sometimes say they are interested not in the meaning behind the text (as traditional historical critics are thought to have been) but in the meaning in front of the text, that is, in its interplay with its readers. This places Gospel study firmly in the world of contemporary literary studies. Some feel, however, that this is also a way of restoring theological value to biblical study, for it is very much in the interchange between reader and text that the text comes to speak to the modern...

Theory 5 Vents in the Ocean

Some popular periodicals, long on speculation but short on specifics, have promoted this concept. However, when science writer Peter Radetcky asked origin-of-life researcher Miller about it, he got undisguised hostility. The vent hypothesis is a real loser. I don't understand why we even have to discuss it, an exasperated Miller told him.48

The christian teaching mission

In 529, the same year that Rome fell to invaders, the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino was founded. It was in this monastery that many of the literary and scientific works of the Roman world were copied and preserved for the future. The works of writers such as Cicero (106-43 b.c.e.), Virgil (70-19 b.c.e.), Seneca (4 b.c.e.-65 c.E.), and the many other educa

Exploring The First Church Buildings

This quote comes from the anti-Christian writer Porphyry (Davies, Secular Use of Church Buildings, 8). Porphyry said that the Christians were inconsistent because they criticized pagan worship yet erected buildings that imitated pagan temples (White, Building God's House, 1291.

The dawn of a historical perspective

Many medieval writers appear to have been unaware of the radical differences between their own period, and classical antiquity. This lack of awareness fostered the belief that past ideas, values and methods could continue to be employed in the present, without the need for modification (Burke 1986). The Renaissance witnessed the birth of both artistic and historical perspective, raising a series of issues concerning the authority of the past in present theological debates. The need for criteria by which the past could be interpreted and appropriated became of increasingly pressing importance. The Renaissance itself tended to use aesthetic criteria, where the Reformers would develop theological criteria. Gradually, the potential of reason as such a criterion can be seen emerging. Yet with this development, the authority of the past was itself undermined, in that a present resource was assigned priority over past authorities (McGrath 1990). The transition from reliance on past...

Our Goal In This Essay

In this essay we are going to look at several so-called principles of Bible study which are commonly taught and widely accepted. We find that there is usually no scripture given whatsoever to support the adoption of these principles. In researching the sources of these teachings on the internet, we only found one case where the writer used scripture to help make his point, and in that case the scripture reference was incorrect. These all qualify as sacred cows. They are quite stubbornly adhered to. Just read some of the literature and you will see what I mean. They lead to wrong conclusions and prevent the student from reaching correct ones. We quoted Luke 11 52 above which mentions that the lawyers alleged experts in the law have taken away the 'key of knowledge'. In Jesus' day, these were the experts in the Law of Moses, the Torah, and the other scriptures. Today they are well known bible teachers, scholars, seminary professors and best selling writers.

The Enlightenment legacy Socinianism and Spiritualism

The religious Romantic revolt against the Enlightenment cannot be understood without reference to theological debates which run through the Enlightenment back to the Reformation and Renaissance. Orthodox Protestantism shared a basic doctrinal content with pre- and post-Tridentine Catholicism. The Romantic revolt was in the traditions of radical Protestantism - Socinianism and Spiritualism - in which a climate of radical questioning of tradition and received authority could develop, since here the writers concerned could sincerely appeal to biblical and patristic sources for their Socinianism or Arianism. One of the major challenges of the Enlightenment period was the claim that doctrinal Christianity is not just false but immoral. In Mary Shelley's deeply Romantic novel Frankenstein the monster picks up Milton's Paradise lost and reads it as the literal depiction of a cruel deity tormenting humanity.3 Such challenges were often the result ofradical movements within Christianity. The...

From Justin to Cyprian

To complete this account of elements from pre-Constantinian times that retain their importance for those who appreciate Catholic Christianity, we wish to retrieve some items from the witness of five writers. We begin with Justin. Among the distinctive features of his writings, two have shown their face in twentieth-century Catholicism. First of all, his Dialogue with Trypho illustrated how Catholic thinking should flow naturally towards Judaism. Justin shared the Hebrew scriptures with the Jew Trypho, and never belittled the faith of his debating partner. For several centuries dialogue with Jews and a mission to the Jews were to enjoy a high priority among Christians, not least because Jews remained a significant source of Christian converts.14 In the third century Origen, one of the greatest Christian scholars of all time, engaged in theological debate with Jews. A section of the De Incarnatione Verbi (7. 33-40) by St Athanasius (c.296-373) shows how such debate with Jews still...

Msn French Revolution

Out of appreciation for their consolatory character, the Reichsgrafin Eleonore zu Stolberg-Stolberg (1669-1745) amassed some 25,000 different funeral sermons.4 A prolific and bestselling writer was the Capuchin Prokop von Templin (1608-80), whose more than 2,600 sermons were published in thirty volumes characteristically titled Eucharistiale, Poeni-tentiale, Orationale, Mariale, and Decalogale. The sermons of Franz Volkmar Reinhard (1753-1812), Lutheran court preacher in Dresden, filled no less than forty-two volumes (published 1815-21) he is said to have addressed three or four thousand people every Sunday. But there were many prolific sermon writers, some of whom reached audiences far beyond their native lands they included the English Nonconformist Philip Doddridge (1702-51), the Scots Presbyterian brothers Ralph (1685-1752) and Ebenezer (1680-1756) Erskine and the German Lutheran Johann Jakob Rambach (1693-1735), to name but a few. Series of...

The Stewardship of Faith

It was spirit-'ually strong, but it was weak intellectually and 1 ethically it had not cut itself free from mythology, _ and its ethic was lower than that of Seneca or of the philosophers in general. , If we now go on a little further we come to another eddy in the westward-flowing stream of religion, the Jewish mission, of which the history has not yet been properly written, partly because it has been approached chiefly by Christian writers, who seem to have thought that it would detract from the honour due to God to ascribe any merit to his chosen people, partly because a knowledge of Semitic life and letters has rarely been combined ' with an equal knowledge of the conditions of life

Roman Forms of Crucifixion

Various shapes, with and without crosspieces. If it were important that we know its exact shape, the Gospel writers could have easily provided us that information yet none of them do. What is important for us to know is the willing sacrifice Jesus made of His own life for our sakes.

Historical School Of Interpretation

Only by objective methodology can we bridge the gap between our minds and the minds of the biblical writers. Indeed, our method of interpreting Scripture is valid or invalid to the extent that it really unfolds the meaning a statement had for the author and the first hearers or readers. Ron Rhodes This historical approach involves a basic failure to understand the nature of inspiration. On one hand these writers acknowledge that scripture is God inspired, then on the other hand, they try and figure out what the writer meant as if the scripture were the work of the writer. We have here a failure to understand what God inspired means. They seem to think that God inspires a writer by giving him an idea and then letting him express it in his own words. Actually God gives all the words himself. All the writer does is write what God tells him. His character, opinions, and personality have no bearing. He's just the messenger. God gives the message, and God is the message Here is an example...

Can The Bible Be Trusted

There's lots of evidence I could talk about, he began. I could talk about the Bible's unity-sixty-six books written in different literary styles by perhaps forty different authors with diverse backgrounds over fifteen hundred years, and yet the Bible amazingly unfolds one continuous drama with one central message. That points to the existence of the divine Mind that the writers claimed inspired them.

The Supreme God of the Pantheon

The second-century writer Celsus whose work we know only from Origen's response to it, called the Contra Celsum, Againt Celsus, perhaps summed up most succinctly the ancient concept of pagan monotheism when he argued (Contra Celsum 1.24) that it did not matter whether the god's name was Zeus or the Most High, or Zen, or Adonai, or Sabaoth, or the Egyptian Ammon, or the Scythian Papaeus. Whatever the name, he insisted, all these deities pointed to the concept of a single divinity, the supreme god or greatest sovereign.

History And The Image Of Jesus

Once this historical attitude spread it was inevitable that it should be applied to the biblical documents and to the life of Jesus. Writing the history of the Jewish and Christian religions became, not simply a study of the background of Revelation, but the description of a social process. Hume was already writing The Natural History of Religion between 1749 and 1751. What happened took two forms. There was the more polemical writing about the Bible produced by writers in the Deist tradition, among them John Toland, Anthony Collins, Thomas Chubb and William Woolston, by French radicals such as Jean Meslier (1664-1729), Voltaire and d'Holbach, and in Germany especially by Hermann Reimarus (1694-1768). These writers may be distinguished from an academic school of biblical criticism, which built up slowly through the work of men like Ernesti, Semler, Michaelis and Lessing. Bernard Cottret makes an important point here The polemical writers desperately wanted to shake the position of the...

Other Campus Censorship

Not surprisingly, conservative journalists are often the targets of liberal bias and intolerance on university campuses. A group of thieves stole twenty-two stacks of Liberty's Flame, the University of California-Davis's conservative newspaper, and dumped them in a recycling bin. Prior to the incident, the publication's writers had received insulting e-mails accusing them of bigotry and promoting segregation. Among the paper's editorial positions that inflamed campus liberals was its exposure of the allegedly anti-American goals of a Mexican group called MEChA.

The Greatest Famine That Ever Occurred

Assyrian Famine

The Roman writer Pliny the Elder also makes reference to a Sergius Paulus whom he used as a source along with others in Book 2 and 18 of his work on Natural History. It is also interesting to note that Pliny mentions that the island of Cyprus was overrun with those who practiced sorcery just like Elymas who the Bible says tried to deceive Sergius Paulus. Pliny writes There existed different groups of magicians from the time of Moses such as Jannes and Lotape, of whom the Jews had spoken of. And in fact many thousands yearly follow after Zoroastrian ways especially during recent times on the Island of Cyprus.

Many Adjustments No Vital Change

The Methodist order of worship, and Book of Common Worship. The similarities are striking. (Christian Liturgy, 646-647). Ij- Some scholars have tried to tease out of the writings of the church fathers a unified, monolithic liturgy observed by all churches. But recent scholarship has shown that none of their writings can be universalized to represent what was happening in all the churches at a given time (Bradshaw, Origins of Christian Worship, 67-73,158-183). Furthermore. archaeological findings have demonstrated that the writings of the church fathers, who were theologians, do not provide an accurate view of the beliefs or practices of the garden-variety Christians of those times. New Testament professor Graydon F. Snyder's Ante Pacem is a study of the archaeological evidence that contradicts the portrait that the church fathers give of church life before Constantine. According to one seminary writer, Snyder raises the question, do the writings of the intellectuals in early...

The Nineteenth Century Major Trends

Among educated people this led to a vogue for mystical teachings, and sometimes mystical sects, especially those flavoured with Protestant pietism. This was true even of great ascetic writers such as Theophan the Recluse (1815-94), a retired bishop who translated many monastic and spiritual texts from Greek into Russian. In his early works, he found favour with fashionable Protestant authors in matters relating to the theological background of Christian asceticism, such as the vision of the divine light, which was of course part of the Orthodox Hesychast tradition. Not surprisingly, these pietistic influences were much stronger among religious writers who came from a secular milieu, such as Alexei Stepanovich Khomiakov (1804-60), the creator of the philosophical and theological school known as 'Slavophilism', and those writers of fiction who were well disposed to the Church, such as Feodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky A great ascetic writer, Bishop Ignatius (Bryanchaninov, 1807-67) as well...

Objection 1 Since Evil And Suffering Exist A Loving God Cannot

Christian author Philip Yancey begins his celebrated book on suffering with a chapter appropriately titled, A Problem That Won't Go Away. 5 This is not just an intellectual issue to be debated in sterile academic arenas it's an intensely personal matter that can tie our emotions into knots and leave us with spiritual vertigo-disoriented, frightened, and angry. One writer referred to the problem of pain as the question mark turned like a fishhook in the human heart. 6 In fact, this is the single biggest obstacle for spiritual seekers. I commissioned George Barna, the public opinion pollster, to conduct a national survey in which he asked a scientifically selected cross-section of adults If you could ask God only one question and you knew he would give you an answer, what would you ask The top response, offered by 17 percent of those who said they had a question, was Why is there pain and suffering in the world 7

Alternate Names of the Feasts

Hanukah is also called The Feast of Dedication and this is another source of confusion. The bible speaks of Jesus in temple during the Feast of Dedication, John 10 22, and some writers take that to mean Hanukah. Since Hanukah is not one of the festivals mentioned by Moses, I tend to think that the incident refers to tabernacles.

The Masonic Holy Trinity

Masonic writers, except as to what is emphatically esoteric and yet we do not believe that the profane world is wiser in those countries than in our own in respect to the secrets of Freemasonry. In the face of these publications, the world without has remained as ignorant of our art, as if no work had ever been written on the subject The truth is that men who are not Masons never read authentic Masonic works. They have no interest in the topics discussed, This Author agrees with Mackey. When this Author has tried to show what the Masons are about, few people will even accord the courtesy of even a few seconds of their time. Even when people are willing to spend a few minutes, how can a few moments dispel all the Masonic smokescreens. Some read that the Masons believe in a Holy Trinity and conclude they are solid Christians. If such men believed in the Christian Trinity, why have most of the most anti-Christian philosophers and writers been fervent Freemasons Masonry and Christianity...

The Gospel in the Old Testament

Who inspired the Old Testament writers in their declarations Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify. 1 Peter 1 10, 11.

A guardian who had been a father to me more than most real fathers [Letters p53

It was in this group that Tolkien met C.S. Lewis and their friendship would become very strong. Tolkien would have an enormous effect of Lewis and vice versa. In fact, in a conversation that lasted until 4 am in the morning Tolkien and Chesterton another well known Christian writer and Oxford Academic helped in Lewis' conversion to Christianity.

Nehemiah and the Open Book

Here in this verse are four things you should hear with spiritual ears. First, the people come into unity. Second the water gate speaks of the pouring out of the Spirit, Third, Ezra the scribe is a type of the Holy Spirit because a scribe is one who writes out the Law, and the Spirit is the one who inspired the writers of the bible. Fourth, the scribe brings the 'book of the law', this points to The Revelation of Jesus Christ.

Church and Biblical Christianity

Symbols Victory Christianity

Church, its success was virtually assured. Not only did it win enormous financial and legal advantages, but bishops could now call upon the might of the state to oppose their rivals competing forms of Christianity ('heresy') and Hellenistic religion and culture ('paganism'). The bishop became a figure of considerable temporal as well as spiritual power in his diocese (an area of jurisdiction modelled on a unit of imperial administration), and a representative of the earthly as well as the heavenly ruler. Perhaps most important of all, Christianity's claim to speak on behalf of the Almighty God gained new plausibility. Christian writers like Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260-c. 340) were quick to characterize Constantine as 'the deputy of Christ', and eager to insist that the alliance of church and Empire was part of God's providential plan for the world.

The Essential Principle Of

This view regards sin as the necessary product of man s sensuous nature a result of the soul s connection with a physical organism. This is the view of Schleiermacher and of Rothe. More recent writers, with John Fiske, regard moral evil as man s inheritance from a brute ancestry.

The Beginning And Development Of Medieval Arabian And Jewish Philosophy And Theology

In the 12th century, Maimonides, born in Cordova and educated in philosophy by Arabian teachers, sought to reconcile Aristotelianism and Judaism in his Guide of the Perplexed. The Guide, Maimonides tells the reader, is meant to help those who are perplexed with seeming conflicts between secular knowledge and the letter of Jewish revelation. Strongly influenced by Alfarabi in his view of the relations between religious doctrines and philosophy, he developed a vision of the reconciliation of faith and reason that drew him high respect in certain philosophical and theological circles and condemnation in others. The 14th-century Jewish writer Gersonides, adhering to Aristotelian philosophy more extensively and explicitly than Maimonides, brought the tensions between philosophy in its Aristotelian dimensions and Jewish beliefs to a high point in Europe. Many found Gersonides's interpretation of the truths of revealed religion insufficient or superficial. In fact, his approach even elicited...

Mystical Christianity

Spiritual world above the ephemeral material world and imagined h the soul floating free of the body in order to ascend to the world of f immaterial ideas. Some or all of these influences came together with f the inspiration provided by Jesus in the 1st and 2nd centuries to produce the many different sorts of religious, spiritual, and philosophical groups and teachings that were lumped together by their opponents as 'gnostic'. So relentless was Church Christianity's attack that we know of gnosticism chiefly by way of 'orthodox' works of criticism by writers such as Irenaeus of Lyons (c. 130-c. 200) and Hippolytus (c. 170-236). It is only recently that some of the actual writings of these groups have been recovered. Contrary to the impression given by traditional church history, it is clear that these alternative interpretations of Christianity - and the groups with which they may have been associated - posed a serious threat to Church Christianity right up to the 4th century and...

History and its Discontents

Evgenios' short-lived liberal teaching created a number of eminent intellectuals who were to reshape the cultural landscape within the Greek language and change the ways of articulating philosophical and theological statements in the Orthodox tradition. The greatest intellectual of all was the prominent philologist and classical scholar Adamantios Koraes (1748-1833) the person who inaugurated a new articulation of the Greek ethnos as a distinct entity within the continuum of Christian universalism. But the new ethnos had to be defined not simply culturally, in regard to the historical past, or linguistically, as has usually been the case with Greek education. For Koraes, the self-definition and self-determination of the new ethnos should be the result of political and social differentiation within existing institutions and such differentiation had to be supported and enhanced through the study of the canonical books of the past, the classical writers and the Bible.

The Tradition Before Mark

If behind Mark there lay a 'community' or 'communities', there also lay, it should be emphasized, a 'tradition' or 'traditions'. Whatever literary or theological creativity was demonstrated by the Markan author, he did not invent the basic material in his Gospel. That material had a pre-history. Sayings and stories about Jesus had been circulating for a generation in various Jewish- or Gentile-Christian communities before they came to literary expression and theological (re)interpretation at the hands of our anonymous writer. These mainly oral traditions took the form, for the most part, of discrete, independent, self-contained units, except possibly for the more extensive passion narrative. The particular 'forms' taken by this oral material were not accidental but a product of the function (Sitz im Leben) ofthe material in its community setting (for example, preaching, teaching, instruction to catechumens, worship, exhortation, discipline, apologetic, polemic). Having played a...

Eusebius and the Beginnings of Christian Historiography

Eusebius was born in Caesarea about 260, survived the final persecutions of the Church, from 303 to 308, and also witnessed the advent of the Christian emperor after 310. He saw the whole as a divine plan, which he would uncover and record, seeing himself as the first Christian historian I am not aware that any Christian writer has until now paid attention to this kind of writing. He provided a narration of how humanity had moved inexorably from the beginning to the remarkable moment at which he lived. He was the first historian of the Church, but that meant that he had to invent history all over again, since, until his time, the Church was not a factor in the history of nations. What Eusebius did was to retell the history of the Church in relationship to the age in which it lived, down to the present, and in this way he created a theology of history, explaining the movement through persecution to the ascent to the throne of a Christian emperor. His was the first full-length narrative...

Christians and slavery

Who is in heaven, the Master of both earthly masters and slaves. In a very touching letter Paul returned a fugitive slave to his master, pleading with the latter to receive the runaway as a brother in the Lord. Paul also declared that in the Christian fellowship there is neither bond nor free, but that all are one in Christ Jesus. More than once in later centuries Christian writers reminded those of their faith that in God's sight the master has no higher status than the slave, but that both are to be judged. Ambrose said that the slave might be superior in character to his master and be really more free than he. Augustine declared that God did not create rational man to lord it over his rational fellows. In this attitude both Ambrose and Augustine may have been influenced by Stoicism, but they believed it to be in accord with Christian principles. In many places slaves might hold office in the Church, It was not unusual for pagans to free their slaves, but many Christians did...

Chariots and 10000 troops from Israels king Ahab

King Ahab married one of the most wicked woman in scripture, Jezebel. Her father was known as king Ethbaal, a dictator who took the throne of Sidon by force. He did so by assassinating his brothers. The Greek writer Menander also stated that Ethbaal was a high priest in the worship of the pagan god Baal. His name means (I am with Baal.)

Decisions of Nicean Council How Arrived at

Lays such a stress added to this, there is no agreement among ancient writers as to the time and place of its assembly, nor even as to the bishop who presided. Notwithstanding the grandiloquent eulogium of Constantine,* Sabinus, the Bishop of Heraclea, affirms that except Constantine, the emperor, and Eusebius Pamphilus, these bishops were a set of illiterate, simple creatures, that understood nothing which is equivalent to saying that they were a set of fools. Such was apparently the opinion entertained of them by Pappus, who tells us of the bit of magic resorted to to decide which were the true gospels. In his Synodicon to that Council Pappus says, having promiscuously put all the books that were referred to the Council for determination under a communion-table in a church, they (the bishops) besought the Lord that the inspired writings might get upon the table, while the spurious ones remained underneath, and it happened accordingly. But we are not told who kept the keys of the...

Archimandrite Ephrem Lash

The Orthodox understanding of scripture is based on two important principles of interpretation. In the first place, as the First Epistle to Timothy puts it, 'All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching' (2 Tim 3 16). Secondly, holy scripture, both Old and New Testaments, forms one divine revelation. The Fathers of the Church and the writers of its hymns and prayers believed that the whole Bible spoke directly of Christ. This is what our Lord implies in Luke 24 44, 'Everything written about me in the law of Moses and in the prophets and psalms must be ful-filled.'1 Holy scripture, therefore, is central to the worship of the Orthodox Church. Its text is chanted and proclaimed, but its words are also woven into the fabric of the Church's prayers and hymns, many of which are in fact little more than mosaics of biblical words and phrases. The Eucharistic Prayer of the Liturgy of St Basil contains over one hundred direct quotations and allusions to the biblical text.2 Many...

The Idea Of Theology And The Conflict Of Interests

The term theologia was not normally used in Christian writers for what we should now call 'theology' until the thirteenth century. Until the twelfth century it was more usual to speak of 'the study of Holy Scripture'. Even Aquina s, late in the thirteenth century, speaks of sacra doctrina in the Summa Theologiae in preference to theologia. The notion of a discipline which PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY IN THE MIDDLE AGES not so that they should become their slaves in payment' (cf. Exodus 11).39 He extends the metaphor to include the theme of the captured handmaid (cf. Deuteronomy 21.10ff.). This too had a long earlier history. Philo of Alexandria explores the implications of the idea that the arts are properly the handmaids of the study of Scripture in his discussion of Hagar.40 The principle is to be found widely in mediaeval writers, Peter Damian,41 Rupert of Deutz,42 Stephen of Tournai and Bonaventure,43 to take a few instances. The argument is that, as handmaids, secular studies have a...

Dead Sea Scrolls and the Bible Qumranian Heritage

Some of this was confirmed, albeit unwittingly, by a present member of the International Team. Despite continuing attempts at stonewalling, members of the International Team have been known on occasion to drop their guard. Father Emile Puech, a young French monk now a member of the International Team, revealed to Michael Baigent in November 1989 that he had found overlaps between the Scrolls and the Sermon on the Mount. He had also found that some of the early Christian writers from the first and second centuries had drawn their material directly from the Qumran texts. It is not hard to see that the creators of the Gospels also based their works on the Qumranian texts and traditions that were available to them - including possibly the crucifixion itself. This is precisely what the Church had been trying desperately to keep under the lid by denying access to the Scrolls.

Scriptures inspiration

Consistently (though with some aberrations in popular practice), evangelicals reject a dictation theory of inspiration, in which God simply and directly communicates every word of the Bible without reference to human authorship, as if the writers were nothing more than impersonal divine pens. Evangelicals affirm the importance of Scripture's human authors God communicates through their investigation and structuring of material (e.g., Luke 1 1-4) linguistic styles (e.g., compare Mark and Hebrews) personalities and histories (e.g., psalms, apocalypses, and prophetic writings) and so on. For many, an analogy between the living Word'' Jesus Christ and the written Word is helpful the Son of God was fully God yet embraced full humanity so also the Bible's fully divine revelation is spoken by fully embracing human forms of communication.

What happened to the new wine

Yet Christians made substantial appropriations from Greek philosophy. Clement of Alexandria and Ambrose of Milan based much of their ethics on what they had learned from Stoicism. The writings of the Stoic Epictetus, somewhat modified to make them more palatable, had a wide circulation in Christian circles. To be sure, Christians took over from Stoicism only what they believed to be consistent with their faith and would have nothing to do with the basic pantheism of that philosophy which would deny the opposition of God to sin, and looked forward to the consummation of the kingdom of God, rather than backward to a Golden Age, as did the Stoics. But Christian ethics were long to give evidence of Stoic contributions. Platonism had a marked influence on Christianity. It entered from many channels, among them the Hellenistic Jew Philo, who was utilized by some early Christian writers, and through Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Augustine, and the writings which bore the name...

The Influence of Prophecy

The picture which is emerging from the above survey is of church-founding apostles passing on Jesus tradition, of teachers reinforcing their church's corporate memory of Jesus tradition, and of early letter writers alluding to and evoking that Jesus tradition in their paraenesis. This picture is most seriously challenged by the common assumption that prophetic utterances in the early churches were often added to the Jesus tradition. The claim is not simply that earlier tradition was modified, radically or otherwise, by church teaching. It is also that prophetic utterances were heard as words of Jesus, accepted as such and included in the church's store of Jesus tradition, to be spread about more widely in due course, no one thinking it necessary to continue to identify them as prophecies (words of the exalted Jesus). Thus Bultmann

Canonical Difficulties

The writers listed above are traditionally considered to have contributed most influen-tially to political debate on the principles and practices of good government across the centuries, and therefore are taken to be the key figures in the history of European political thought.

The Beginning of the Idea of the Fathers

Maurice Wiles suggests that a change happened in the fifth century (Wiles 1979 47-8). In the Trinitarian controversies all parties claimed they were interpreting Scripture in a manner true to the rule of faith in the Christological controversies both sides claimed also to be correctly interpreting the non-scriptural but written formula or creed of Nicaea and they tried to show that the works of earlier writers conformed to their views. In order to prove what the written, post-scriptural tradition was, they constructed dossiers of texts, which were described as being of the holy Fathers. Each party appealed to roughly the same authors, but selected and interpreted the material to give weight to its own case. Lists of accepted authoritative authors became less consistent in later centuries, but the idea that there were such authors persisted. word Father to a writer who was not a bishop, when he used it of Jerome. The formula of Chalcedon was described as being in agreement with the...

Medieval Patristic Collections

One way of knowing when an author has arrived at patristic status in medieval eyes is to see what company he keeps in collections of extracts. Conversely, a development which strongly encouraged later writers to look for authority in the writings of their predecessors was the habit of extracting from the texts short portions which could be quoted to support a particular viewpoint. Collections of such useful extracts were commonplace in the Carolingian period and beyond. The methodology remained in use throughout the Middle Ages. It kept a range of authors in play. But it unavoidably led to the breaking up into small pieces of what may have been an extended argument in the original. 1988 3). Burchard of Worms has a significant proportion of patristic texts (247 out of 1,785). Ivo of Chartres speaks of orthodoxi patres (Patrologia Latina 161.47), including popes, councils and scriptores ecclesiastici. Gratian includes a good deal of patristic material (on the authority perhaps of...

Arguments in Favour of the Social Analogy

Of the writers considered so far in this chapter, Williams, Geach, Swinburne, MacKinnon and Brown all favour the social analogy over the psychological analogy for very obvious reasons. The psychological analogy, despite its venerable pedigree in Augustine and much western theology, contains a fundamental weakness. It seeks a model or image of the triune life of the God of the Christians in the distinctions and relations between, say, memory, understanding and will in an individual human mind. But this does not begin to make sense of the interpersonal relations within God of love given, love received and love shared still more that are revealed through the Incarnation and the gift of the Spirit, and required by maximal greatness theology, if God is not to lack the specific excellencies of love. As T. V. Morris puts the matter, in a brief exposition of trinitarian theism,37 it is difficult to see how 'singularity theories', as he calls those employing the psychological analogy, can do...

The Four Gospels Jesus Prophet and Embodiment of the Kingdom of

John the Baptist and Jesus, however, were both hailed as figures in the tradition of the prophets (Matt. 16 17f., 23 26ff.). Indeed, John was seen as an embodiment of Elijah's own person (Luke 1 76 Matt. 11 13). Like their contemporaries who suffered at the hands of the colonial power (e.g. Josephus, Jewish War vi. 281ff. and 301ff. Antiquities xviii. 55ff. xx. 97ff., 167ff., 185ff. Goodman 1987 Gray 1993), they were thorns in the flesh of those in power. John, according to the Jewish writer Josephus, was suspected of fomenting revolution (Antiquities xviii. 116f.), and that seems to have been the attitude toward Jesus on the part of the hierarchy in Jerusalem, who feared Roman reprisals if Jesus were allowed to go on behaving as he was (John 11 49). Indeed,

Prophetic and Revivalist Premillennial Adventism

Irving came to have a profound influence over Henry Drummond, a politician, banker and writer who opened his home at Albury Park, Surrey, to Irving, M'Neile, Way, and those of like mind, keen to study prophecy. With a growing interest in millennial speculations other writers published similar treaties. McNeile, looking back in 1866, in the preface to his new edition, acknowledged how, a generation earlier, such views were something of a novelty by what he terms 'anti-restorationists'.70

Secular Vatican Mussolini to Mafia

The doctrine is important only because it is the product sold by the institution which the British writer David Yallop has called Vatican Incorporated. Its 'religion' -under the name of 'Judeo-Christian values' is now little more than a political slogan -just as 'secularism' has become in India and some other former colonies.17 The Vatican today is essentially a multinational business enterprise, a holding company with investments in many corporations, possibly including those that make firearms and missiles, and, surprise of surprises - birth control pills. But for those employed by Vatican Inc., it is often a very comfortable life indeed. Its one redeeming feature is that it can provide employment to people who might otherwise be unemployable. Most students of history know that Medieval and Renaissance Popes like the notorious Alexander VI were incredibly corrupt. Writing anonymously, the great humanist writer Petrarch (1304-74) described the papal court of Clement VI in the...

The Festal Letters

It was customary for bishops of Alexandria to write a Festal Letter as Easter approached, and two recent studies have done much to solve the chronological problems posed by the Festal Letters which Athanasius wrote for the Easters during his long episcopate, from the Easter of 329 to the Easter of 373.' In 1986 Rudolf Lorenz published a facsimile of the Syriac text of Letter X with a German translation, preceded by a brief but incisive discussion of the editorial process which lay behind the Syriac and Coptic corpora and followed by a consideration of the theological content of the letter.2 In the same year Alberto Camplani presented a thesis at the University of Rome which was subsequently revised and published as a substantial monograph in 1989 it contains a full treatment of the direct and indirect transmission of the Festal Letters, of the compilation of the two corpora and the chronology of the Letters, and of the value of the Letters as a historical source.3 Fortunately, the...

The Philosophy And Theology Of Philo

In the last lecture I said that Philo occupies a peculiar position in the history of theology, because he, more than any other writer, exhibits to us the process by which the two great streams of thought, from Greece and from Judaea, came to unite in one. Just at the time when Christ was teaching in Galilee, Philo in Alexandria was using the lessons of Greek philosophy to guide him in his interpretation of the Old Testament. And in one sense he was quite justified in doing so for the development of Jewish religion had brought it to a point of view closely analogous to that which had been reached by the independent movement of Greek thought and in the later books of the Old Testament we can discern the elements of that spiritual and universal conception of religion, which is found in Philo. Philo, therefore, it might be said, was only reading backwards into the earliest expressions of the religious The sacred books, however, when interpreted in the light of the conception of the Logos...

Christian Use Of The Old Testament In The

The writers of the books which eventually made up the New Testament take the Old Testament to be the Word of God and a constitutive part of the tradition of Christianity itself. In Acts 4 25, for example, the Holy Spirit is said to have spoken through the mouth of David. The foretelling of the life, death and resurrection of Christ in the Old Testament is a constant theme running through the New. Micah 5 2, for instance, speaks of the birth at Bethlehem Hosea 11 1 of the coming from (after a flight into) Egypt of the Son of God (cf. Matt. 2 15) Psalm 41 9 of the betrayal. In both the Gospel and the Epistles Old Testament authors speak as authorities 'David said ' (Mark 12 36) 'Moses said.' 'Moses wrote.' (Mark 7 10 12 19) 'Isaiah prophesied.' 'Isaiah cried.' 'Isaiah says.' (Mark 7 6 Rom. 9 27 10 20). As well as this direct citation, we find a weaving of words and phrases and images and echoes from the Old Testament into the very texture of the New Testament's language. 1 Peter 2 1-10...

Lessings Historical Position

Most of Lessing's writings during the period of the fragments controversy open with a citation in Latin or Greek taken from the church fathers or from ancient writers. The Education of the Human Race likewise opens with a quotation from one of the classical languages. Taken from Augustine's Soliloquies 2, 10, the citation reads Haec omnia inde esse in quibusdam vera, unde in

Marcion and the canon

Marcion is one of the most intriguing yet elusive figures in early Christian history. It is proof of his prominence that, among the diverse forms of Christianity that flourished in the second century, his was the most frequently and forcefully attacked by anti-heretical writers, and was apparently perceived as the most dangerous Marcion has likewise interested modern scholars, not only because of the peculiarities of his teachings but also because of his possible influence on one of the most important developments in the early church, the formation of the Christian Bible.2 In that connection, Marcion has commanded attention on two major topics the church's appropriation of the scriptures of Judaism (which it came to call the 'Old Testament'), and the emergence of a canon of specifically Christian scriptures (a 'New Testament').

The defeat or the Arians

Gregory, who was ordained by Basil as Bishop of Nyssa, a small town near Cssarea, was not as able an administrator as his brother nor as eloquent a preacher as Gregory of Nazianzus, but he was a prolific writer and, like them stimulated by Origen, was a greater theologian than either.

The Competition with Aristotle

The greatest Christian Latin writer of the West was undoubtedly St. Augustine. His influence is overwhelming Hugh of St. Victor (d. c.1141), the author of a Collection of Sentences (summa sententiarum) and On the Sacraments of the Christian Faith (De sacra-mentis fidei Christianae), through his many citations from the Bishop of Hippo established himself as the second Augustine. The numerous citations of Augustine in Lombard's Sentences could easily make him a worthy candidate for the same title. Augustine is, beyond doubt, the most influential Patristic authority among medieval writers. Despite Augustine's formidable presence, there would be a challenge to the organization he gave to the divine mysteries and especially to the neo-Platonic influences on his reflections. He lived in a world that was ruled intellectually by Stoic and neo-Platonic philosophers. His criticism of the Stoic form of neo-Platonist thought, in Book XIX of The City of God, is masterful in its ridicule of a...

Were the Men of Sodom Sodomites

Both writers who want to insist that the Bible condemns homosexuality and writers who wish to argue against this proposition have operated with the assumption that if this is a story about homosexuality then it provides strong support for the idea that the Bible operates with a category of homosexuality that it violently condemns. Typical is Eva Cantarella, who, in arguing against Robin Scroggs' claim that the Leviticus verses are totally isolated in biblical literature and probably late (Scroggs 1983 73), writes, The proof of how forced this interpretation is comes from the celebrated story of the people of Sodom (Cantarella 1992 195). Rightly dismissing interpretations which deny the sexual nature of the Sodomites' intentions, she concludes, It seems very difficult to deny that the biblical account should be taken to mean that homosexuality is an execrable type of behaviour (1992 197). Difficult or no, this is precisely what I intend to do. hands being full of blood (v. 16), and...

What Did Peter Mean

Why did Peter quote from it Just as men now quote from the classics, not sanctioning the truth of the quotation, but to illustrate and enforce a proposition. Nothing is more common than for writers to quote fables As the toroise said to the hare, in Aesop As the sun said to the wind, etc. We have the same practice illustrated in the Bible. Joshua, after a poetical quotation adorning his narrative, says Is not this written in the Book of Jasher (Josh. 10 113) and Jeremiah (48 45) says A fire shall come forth out of Heshbon, quoting from an ancient poet, says Dr. Adam Clarke. Peter alludes to this ancient legend, to illustrate the certainty of retribution, without any intention of teaching the silly notions of angels falling from heaven,

Establishing a National Church

This was only the beginning of a series of persecutions of independent intellectuals and writers that prevented any lively theological and philosophical debate developing in nineteenth-century Greece. In 1856, the writer Andreas Laskaratos (1811-1902) published his fairly innocuous satire The Mysteries of Cephalonia, which simply criticized manners, customs and traditions of priests in his native island. The book was immediately banned by the Church and Laskaratos was anathematized the Church bells tolled for days and the writer was persecuted from all sides. At that time the western prefecture of the Seven (Ionian) Islands was an English protectorate, but the decision was taken at both local and national level. But the most obvious case against free thinking took place when a young writer called Emmanuel Roides (1836-1904) published his now famous 'medieval study' under the title Pope Joan (1866). The storm that was unleashed was to last for decades To such theologically sound...

The Transition From Plato To Aristotle

Ing tendency is toward synthesis and those whose prevailing tendency is toward analysis those who seek to discover unity among things that present themselves as diverse and unconnected, and those who seek rather to detect differences in things that present themselves as similar or even identical. But it is obvious that these two characteristics can never be entirely isolated from each other. Distinction implies relation, and relation distinction and he who sees clearly the one cannot be altogether blind to the other. Least of all can we admit such blindness in the case of two great systematic writers, like Plato and Aristotle, who may be admitted to have a certain bias of mind, but who cannot be conceived

James Morrow The Towing Jehovah Saga34

The next work of fiction to be examined is actually a trilogy written by James Morrow, a science fiction writer from Pennsylvania, about a chain of events that begins with the splashdown of the Corpus Dei in the early 1990s. In 1992, to be precise, a giant male corpse, two miles long, was discovered floating face-up in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. The Vatican and a handful of other individuals were notified of this by dying angels, who confirmed that it was indeed God. The Vatican secretly contracted to have the SS Carpco Valparaiso, a retired oil supertanker, tow Morrow is such a good writer that once you have entered the world of these novels, this sort of thing does seem plausible. The full arc of the trilogy is important to keep in mind, but enough of the theological achievement of the trilogy can be captured through a close reading of the story as it unfolds in the first volume, Towing Jehovah, for the purposes of this chapter. This volume carries us as far as the...

The transition from

NTow, just in so far as the doctrines of Plato and Aristotle can be taken in this latter sense, there is no real opposition between them while, if they can only be taken in the former sense, they must be regarded as wholly irreconcileable. The truth may perhaps best be expressed by saying that, to one who takes their first words in their most obvious sense, Plato and Aristotle seem respectively to begin with the abstract universal and the abstract individual, but that in their most developed doctrine they substitute for these what we may call the concrete universal and the concrete individual. This is partly hidden from us by the fact that Aristotle seems often to take Plato in his lowest sense, as many later writers have taken Aristotle in his lowest sense. In his criticisms upon the ideal theory Aristotle very distinctly points out the error of taking the abstract universal as complete in itself, and, therefore, as an independent or individual substance. He shows with convincing...

The Reformation and Puritan Attitudes toward the Jews

Jonathan Edwards was probably the most influential American writer of the 18th Century. In his history of the Church written in 1774, As a convinced postmillennialist, Edwards spoke of the overthrow of Satan's kingdom epitomised in the Pope, Islam and 'Jewish infidelity',

The Ackley Connection

Who are the Ackleys Maria Ackley, who was Charles T. Russell's wife, was well-educated and an excellent writer. Interestingly, in the 19th century she believed a socialist revolution was coming. She wrote, This great revolution has not yet come, but where is the statesman or the intelligent citizen that does not see it coming (Russell, Maria. This Gospel of The Kingdom, p. 26.) She was the ghost writer and ghost editor for much of her husband Charles Taze's work. Her family was well-off. William Ackley, the land speculator seller in Iowa, traces his ancestry back to Prence Doane and Elizabeth Godfrey. Elizabeth Godfrey in turn was the great-granddaughter of William Brewster of the Mayflower fame. The Ackleys were Puritans to begin with and seem to have been

The Earliest Examples and Types of Christian Visual Art Church Regulation

Dura Baptistery Yale

Obviously, such definitions and regulations only make sense for a time when Christian images were being produced in enough quantity to make these policies necessary. As we have seen, Christian writers of the second and early third centuries seem unaware of any significant amount or type of Christian art worthy of condemnation. Their objections were aimed at the art of others, pagans or perhaps Christian heretics, and not at their own coreligionists. The warnings against idolatry were warnings against the cult images of other religions, not against Christian artworks. Based on this lack of awareness, we might reasonably conclude that Christians produced very little religions art, or that what they did produce was so innocuous that it neither attracted attention nor raised concerns

Seeking to Repress the Opposition

The threats continued at the new hotel. A group of protestors pounded on cars entering the hotel garage parking facility, and three activists stood outside the meeting room screaming that the conferees were murderers of gays, that they were responsible for Matthew Shepard's death, and they were as bad as the Ku Klux Klan. One writer commented on the striking difference between this kind of virulent reaction to criticism by the militant homosexual lobby and that of Christians in defending themselves against attack. Columnist Hadley Arkes wrote, In truth, the campaigns of aggression and calumny are launched persistently from the other side. But when Catholics gather civilly across the street from Terrence McNally's Corpus Christi in New York-when they say the rosary and carry signs protesting against blasphemy-they are labeled as aggressors and tagged for the dark crime of censorship. This want of evenhandedness makes little impression on the media, and there is no outrage over the...

Medicine and Natural Philosophy

This conclusion might seem to lend aid and comfort to those who wish to subordinate Thomas's own medical or physical learning to the higher ends of whatever Thomistic metaphysics or theology they are trying to construct. In fact, it does not. Thomas's practice as a writer suggests that the theologian needs to know only enough medicine or biology to treat theologically significant topics, but he (not alas she) does need to know that much. If Thomas displays rather little medical erudition drawn from a handful of sources, he presses that specific erudition into important use. The medicine he knows is not a blank slate. It cannot be casually displaced by modern accounts or modern disciplinary arrangements not, that is, if one has any respect for the coherence of Thomistic intellectual projects. There is no complete Thomistic medicine, but there are a few specific doctrines on medical points in Thomas. They cannot ground a modern medicine. On the contrary, they belong to a medicine long...

Franco Ferrucci The Life of God as Told by Himself 1996

Thousands of years later, we find God hunkered down with Moses at Mt Sinai. But just as he began composing the Ten Commandments, God experienced a spell of writer's block, was distracted by the massacre that followed the festival of the golden calf, a bloodletting that we learn was entirely Moses' doing, and withdrew for several weeks into the desert. When God returned a few weeks later, Moses was still busy elaborating laws for Israel. Moses was furious and complained that God had left him with the hard work of persuading a stiff-necked people to accept the laws

Problems of evil and some responses to them

What is this second form driving at It can be found in the work of writers like Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas, and the first thing to say about it (since this is often not appreciated) is that it is not siding with Mary Baker Eddy and is not claiming that there really is no pain, or that there are no wicked people or bad actions. Augustine and Aquinas would never have denied the reality of suffering or sin. They acknowledge that people and other animals suffer, and that people can be horribly vicious as well as slightly bad. Much of their thinking depends on this recognition. On the other hand, however, they hold that what makes suffering or wickedness bad is the fact A prominent contemporary writer who defends the 'We Can't See All the Picture' Argument is William P. Alston.44 An opponent of theism (such as William Rowe) might suggest that there exist instances of intense suffering that God could have prevented without thereby losing some greater good (let us call this...

The English Novel Its Cultural Context and the Bible

In England, the novel was making an increasingly significant impact on a large section of the reading public. A critical literature began to develop about it in the latter part of the century, the critics noting the break of the genre with that of the romance from which it arose. Don Quixote. ridiculing the figure of the heroic knight of romantic tales, was usually held to signal the historical beginnings of the shift. Mrs. Clara Reeve, a minor but significant writer and critic of the day, distinguished between the novel and the whole variety of romances both in their character and their effect

From Presbyter To Priest

Clement of Rome, who died in about 100, was the first Christian writer to make a distinction in status between Christian leaders and nonleaders. He was the first to use the word laity to distinguish them from the ministers. Clement argued that the Old Testament order of priests should find fulfillment in the Christian church. Tertullian was the first writer to use the word clergy to refer to a separate class of Christians. Both Tertullian and Clement popularized the word clergy in their writings.'

The Jewish Labor Committee

The organization of the Jewish Labor Committee in 1934 is cited in the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1943), in a sketch by its executive secretary. It represented a membership of half a million in 1942 and included David Dubinsky's International Ladies Garment Workers' Union, Sidney Hillman's Amalgamated Clothing Worker's Union, and 765 other labor organizations. The donation of a day or half-day's pay to underground activities abroad was mentioned. Adolph Held, Joseph Baskin, David Dubinsky and the writer Jacob Pat, are given as officers.

On Communism and Bolshevism

Carynnyk collected abundant evidence that the Nazis could not possibly have had anything to do with the murder of a probable total of millions of Ukrainians by the Soviet Secret Police in the period before 1941. A writer for Commentary could not be expected to remind his readers that the Secret Police, though known under various names and supposedly reformed at times, was always under the command of Jews, directed even locally by Jews, and largely staffed by Jews, although it included some especially vicious Mongoloids and Turkics (Tartars et al.) and Slavs, but he does remark that the murders, like the preceding starvation of Ukrainians, were specifically authorized by Stalin's Jewish brother-in-law, Lazarus Kaganovich . . .

Mittwoch S Islamic Liturgy And Cult

Expressed their thoughts and named their institutions. However, the attempt made in the following exposition to assign influence or to show contact is the result of a careful perusal of the relevant sources and the vast literature on the subject. Valuable research has been done on the problem under discussion, especially by Geiger, Goitein, Goldziher, Griinbaum, Heller, Horovitz, Hirschfeld, Mittwoch, Speyer and Becker, Bergstrasser, Juynboll, Sachau, Schacht, Wensinck the present writer follows these scholars in the main, while maintaining his independence of them in certain parts. * On this point S. D. Goitein adduces new material of considerable importance, in his contributions to Tarbis (see bibliography at the end of this chapter). Goitein's source is mainly information current in the circles of Malik ibn Dinar, as contained in the third part of the Hilyat al-awliya of Abu Nu'aim. Since, in the Kurgan and earlier Muslim writers, the later prophets, with the exception of Jonah,...

Vatican I And Vatican Ii

In the run up to Vatican I and its definition of papal authority, the work of the French writer Joseph de Maistre (1753 1821) was seminal. In a world shaken by the French Revolution and its aftermath, he presented the papacy as an absolute monarchy that sustained the well-being of the whole Church. The pope's authority is sovereign his decisions are not open to appeal, and his doctrinal declarations are infallibly binding. De Maistre argued that only such an absolute papacy could check abuses from national states in the temporal sphere and save separated Christian brethren from lapsing into religious indifference. Gallicans and many who championed liberal ideas dismissed de Maistre and others, such as William George Ward (1812 82), as 'ultramontanes (beyond the mountains)', since they looked 'across the Alps' to Rome, maximalized papal authority, and expected from the pope answers to every important question. In a saying that was widely quoted, Ward declared 'I should like a new Papal...

Critique and Reconstruction

Traditional Christologies, similarly, have also been criticized by feminist and womanist theologians for their implicit biases. The maleness of Jesus has been seen by many writers as an insuperable obstacle to the redemption of women (Daly 1973), although others argue that it is the suffering humanity of Jesus that forms the kernel of a liberative Christology, and in particular his identification within his own ministry with the marginal and excluded (Ruether 1983). The range of sources upon which feminist, womanist, and Latina theologians draw reveals the extent to which conventional sources and norms are reconfigured. Katie Cannon and Delores Williams both emphasize the centrality of black women's authentic voices for the reconstruction of the womanist theological canon, a resource more likely to be accessible through literary and oral sources than enshrined within official tradition. This may be considered to constitute a kind of theology in the vernacular, articulated in the...

Modern catholic literature

Catholic literature has continued to develop in the modern and contemporary period and has done so in many forms. Theological and philosophical themes have been elaborated in the writings ofJacques Maritain (1882-1973), Etienne Gilson (18841978), Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955), and Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973). The novels of Graham Greene (1904-91) have often wrestled with the moral dilemmas facing Catholics in the contemporary world, and the works of Flannery O'Connor (1925-64) have often treated themes challenging Catholics and many other religious people today. Other writers, such as Thomas Keneally and David Lodge (both born in 1935), grapple with the issues of being Catholics in contemporary society from the angle of those whose heritage is Catholic but who now move in a wider circle of influences.

Delving Beneath The Surface

But, in retrospect, I don't think his head was the real problem, he said. I started thinking about what he would lose if he followed Jesus. He was part of a guild of brilliant writers who all think religion is a total crock. I really believe his professional pride and the rejection of his peers would have been too high of a price for him to

Modern Translations More Explicit

Genesis is reputed to be the first book of Moses (pbuh). God Almighty Himself is supposed to have dictated the five books of the Jewish Torah, now accepted by all Christians as God's Word. In the first of these five books, God Almighty spells it out for Moses (pbuh) that the third wife of His Friend, Abraham (pbuh) was Keturah, the previous two being Sarah and Hagar. If the Lord God of Moses (pbuh) Himself acknowledges Keturah as Abraham's W-I-F-E, then who can have the audacity to contradict Him and denigrate Keturah But some unknown 1 anonymous writer, of the 1st Book of Chronicles, chapter one, verse thirty two, had the nerve to change God's Word dictated to Moses (pbuh) from WIFE to CONCUBINE, unless they mean the same thing. Otherwise, the Bible-thumper will have to acknowledge that there is yet another contradiction in his Bible. Look in the index of your Combat Kit for CONTRADICTIONS IN THE BIBLE, and add this item also to your list.

The Scientific Evidence In the Eye of the Beholder

Let's consider what a famous writer In the field of science said about two particular flowers, both orchids. Although his language Is a little technical, It's Important to read the account In the author's own words as he describes his findings and those of another scientist, a Dr. Cruger. The Incredible story Is well worth reading. The same writer then describes the other orchid, giving yet another remarkable example of carefully planned design In the natural world

Penance from the Sixth Century

The sacrament of penance underwent a dramatic change from the end of the sixth century Irish and Anglo-Saxon monk-missionaries, who had not known the older system of public penance, began fanning out across Europe, founding or refounding Christian communities, and introducing the 'monastic' practice of penance. This involved private confession to a spiritual father (or mother), reception of an appropriate penance (which was aimed more at restoring the balance of the moral universe than at reconciliation with the community), and private prayer of pardon or blessing after the penance was completed. The monk-missionaries brought with them 'penitentials' or handbooks for hearing confession on a one-to-one basis. Originally developed in sixth-century Ireland by such figures as St Finnian (d. 549) and St Columbanus (d. 615), the penitentials were composed over a period of three centuries in Latin and Old Irish, and varied in length and sophistication. The earlier models provided little more...

Into the depths philosophies of deep ecology

To answer these questions, I turn to the writings of Fox and Mathews, drawing on other sources where appropriate.37 I wish also to stress that both these writers are concerned - directly or indirectly - to move deep ecology away from discussions of value and towards metaphysics and thereby to rescue deep ecology from an identification with value theories in ethics. There is a sense in which the matter of the value of nature has never been Naess's primary concern. This clue is developed explicitly by Fox and is treated in a rather different manner - and from a greater distance - by Mathews. From ethics to cosmology the reinvention of deep ecology continues. And we should note that this reinvention is partially obscured by the reception of deep ecology ethical treatments - see Michael Northcott's important book The Environment and Christian Ethics -continue to treat deep ecology as in part a theory of ecocentric value.38 The direction deep ecology seems now to have set for itself is...

The Romanian Orthodox Church since 1918 19181944

Grigorie Pisculescu (pen-name Gala Galaction) and Vasile Radu (both of whom retranslated the Bible), Iuliu Scriban, Ioan Savin, Valeriu and Cicerone Iordachescu, Toma Bulat, Constantin Tomescu in Sibiu Nicolae Colan, Dumitru Staniloae in Cluj Liviu Munteanu and in Arad Ilarion Felea. Some priests were also historians (some of them were elected Members of the Romanian Academy), others were writers or folklor-ists. Many were missionaries, social workers, military priests or teachers of religion in middle schools.

Naipauls Among the Believers and Beyond Belief

In October 2001, Sir Vidia Naipaul was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.339 Nalpaul speaks with a unique voice, whether it be in his fiction or his travelogues. He once observed that 'I am the kind of writer that people think other people are reading'.340 Jason Cowley assessed his work as follows

Dacian Roman Christianity First to Sixth Centuries

In the territory between the Danube and the Black Sea (the future Scythia Minor province), the new teaching of Jesus Christ was propagated by St Andrew. This was mentioned by Hippolytus of Rome (d. 236), by Origen of Alexandria (d. 254), by the church historian Eusebius of Caesarea, and by several later Byzantine writers. Some local place names and folklore traditions attest to the statements of these writers regarding St Andrew's preaching. According to recent findings, St Philip might have preached in the same territory. This is suggested by the existence of a fourth-century Gothic calendar and by the assertions of a Benedictine monk, Walafridus Strabo, who lived in a monastery in the Alps, in the ninth century. The strength of Christianity in Scythia Minor after 313 is proven by an impressive number of early Christian objects (rush-lights, crosses) and by over a hundred funeral inscriptions. Moreover, 35 basilicas (of the fourth to sixth centuries) were discovered in the main...

Conclusion Of Cardinal Virtues

In comparing Bonaventure's and Aquinas's appropriations of the Neoplatonic hierarchy of virtues, we note first that both Christian writers affirm the theory without hesitation. Even though they confront it in specifically theological contexts, both authors eagerly adopt from a pagan authority a theory bearing on the end of man. Indeed, both of them give specifically Christian emphasis to the ethical theory. Bonaventure insists that the whole of Sacred Scripture is concerned with the exemplar virtues. Aquinas too makes significant theological use of the theory, choosing to introduce it at a crucial point in the dialectic of the Summa. The article of the Summa considered above is the last article of the last question on cardinal virtue as such it helps form a transition between Aquinas's discussions of moral and theological virtue.

Mystics and Troubadours

Also, by this time Ovid's works on love along with his other works became so often studied that the period is characterized as the ''aetas Ovidiana,'' the age of Ovid's works. In this age of Ovidian revival, his Ars amatoria, the Art of Love, became especially well known. It was adapted to the medieval feudal society and thus circulated in the vernaculars as well as Latin. It is not surprising that in an age that revered literary authorities, Ovid's writings provided models not only for creative writing but especially for the age's new fascination with human love. As McCarthy notes, echoes of Ovid are in Abelard's account of his affair with Heloise, and in the imaginative works of Andreas Capellanus, Guillaume de Lorris, Geoffrey Chaucer, and John Gower. Allen in his The Art of Love details the medieval reception and transmission of Ovid's works noting that the major writers of the time ''knew their Ovid as well as their Bible by heart.'' Giovanni Boccaccio's (1313-1375) Decameron...

Love in the Modern World

Love in the modern world took a number of trajectories. While Wichern and others were striving to respond to the social and economic challenges of their day, their colleagues in philosophy and theology were responding to the intellectual challenges posed by the rise of the sciences, both natural and social. Meanwhile, writers of novels, poetry, plays, and operas were luxuriating in a public market that could not get enough love-stories. Similarly, Schlegel's friend Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenberg, 1772-1801), who according to Barth ''represents in a uniquely pure way the intentions and achievements of this entire group of Romantic writers ,'' was leaning toward Roman Catholicism by the end of his short life. Novalis' poem ''Hymns to the Night'' expressed his passion and grief over the early death at 15 of his fiancee, Sophie von Kiihn. He himself died soon afterward from tuberculosis at the age of 29. His major unfinished writing, a critique of the Enlightenment ideal of reason and...