Surviving World War III

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more here...

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Highly Recommended

I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

Purchasing this book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

World War I greatly disheartened this group and World War II virtually wiped out this viewpoint

Let us momentarily suppose, for the sake of argument, that this statement is correct. The proper answer is So what This does not prove that the Christian Hope is untrue - only that people stopped believing that it is true. The implication of the statement, however, is that the fact of two world wars constitutes evidence that the Hope is mistaken, since the world is not getting better and better. I will grant this much The two world wars (and the threat of a third) did considerably damage the hopes of those humanists who believed in the heretical doctrine of automatic human progress toward peace and brotherhood. Often falsely confused with postmillennialism, it is actually no closer to the eschatolog y of dominion than pagan sacrifices are to the Lord's Supper. The Christian does not need to become discouraged in the face of world war or widespread persecution. His faith is in God, not in man his hope is not tied to the destiny of any particular culture. If his nation or civilization...

Why the Soviet Union Thinks it Could Fight and Win a Nuclear

These contrary views of war were affected differently by the coming of nuclear weapons. In the U. S., atomic and thermonuclear bombs were considered absolute weapons, capable of destroying a society or even a civilization, and against which there was no defense. Thus, Clausewitz's dictum that war is an extension of politics was considered dead. Since nuclear war could serve no rational political purpose, the function of strategic forces should be to avert war. Because of the vast destructiveness of nuclear weapons, a sufficiency of weapons to retaliate was believed to be enough. Numerical superiority was thought to have little meaning. To ensure a stable balance, in which conflicts could be resolved by negotiation, the USSR should even have the ability to do unacceptable second-strike damage to the U. S. This concept of mutual deterrence, or mutual assured destruction, became U. S. policy and as nuclear delivery capabilities improved, remained the foundation of a somewhat more...

The Bulgarian Exarchate after the First World

The First World War ended with a crushing defeat for Bulgaria. Consequently, at the end of September 1918 the Bulgarian Exarchate lost its Macedonian dioceses again. At the Treaty of Neuilly, signed on 2 7 November 1919, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church lost most of its Strumica diocese (Strumica, Radovis, Valandovo), the border districts of the Sofia diocese (Tsaribrod, Bosilegrad) and western Thrace, where the diocese of Maronia, having its episcopal seat in Gumurdjina, had existed since 1913. In European Turkey the exarchate managed to preserve its Adrianople diocese, which from 1910 until the spring of 1932 was governed by Archimandrite Nikodim Atanasov (who became Bishop of Tiveriopol after his ordination on 4 April 1920). Also on Turkish territory was the temporary diocese of Lozengrad, governed between 1922 and 1925 by the Bishop of Nisava, Hilarion. He was succeeded by the former Metropolitan of Skopje, Neophyte, who also governed the neighbouring diocese of Adrianople from 1932...

World War I

What instruments were used to bring about World War I The Freemasons and the Order of Jesuits. The Freemasons were involved in the asassination of the Archduke,36 which touched off a chain of reactions. The Jesuit influence on the Austria-Hungarian empire egged them into taking punitive measures against Serbia.37 The Vatican threw their support behind the Central Powers hoping to see their enemies, the Orthodox Chuch in Russia and the Balkins, the English, and the uncooperative French government taken care of. The Vatican's ancient fear of its old rivalries gave the Illuminated groups an easy button to push.

Oppositionalism And The Shaping Of American Protestant Identity

How was a sense of identity shaped and reinforced within American Protestantism until the eve of the First World War This important question penetrates to one of the fundamental questions probed throughout this volume namely, what is it that actually defines Protestantism The decade before the First World War represents a transitional period in American Protestant history. There was little, if any, sense of a looming crisis of identity. Protestants, having always enjoyed the liberty that comes from writing the law, were confident that no difference existed between duty to the church and to the state. Yet change was under way. By about 1910, the role of government was in transition it was turning from the enforcement of a particular moral or religious order to

Objection 1 Since Evil And Suffering Exist A Loving God Cannot

Like the account I was reading recently of an Italian journalist during World War II who was visiting a smiling Ante Pavelic, the pro-Nazi leader of Croatia. Pavelic proudly showed him a basket of what looked like oysters. It was, he said, a gift from his troops-forty pounds of human eyes. A small memento from their slaughter of Serbs, Jews, and Gypsies.3

The Romanian Orthodox Church in the Modern Period 18211918

On 9 May 1877 Romania proclaimed itself independent of the Ottoman Empire. The Berlin Congress (1878) internationally acknowledged the Romania's state independence and the annexation of Dobrudja. In exchange, Bukovina, which had been annexed by the Hapsburg Empire in 1775, remained as it was. After the Treaty of 16 May 1812 between Tzarist Russia and the Ottoman Empire, Russia annexed Bessarabia. Transylvania, Banat Maramures and Crisana remained part of the Austrian Haps-burg Empire. The dualistic state of Austria-Hungary was created in 1867, and the administration of those three territories was taken over by Hungary, which intensified Romanians' struggle for independence. After World War I Romania retrieved its three regions, as a result of the National Assembly in Alba-Iulia in 1918. The Peace Treaty of Versailles (1919-20) sanctioned these national resolutions. The clergy and the hierarchs took part in social and national vindication movements in the 1848 revolution in Vallachia,...

Secular Vatican Mussolini to Mafia

Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, the Vatican Secretary of State under Pope Pius XI played a leading role in concluding the treaty with the Nazis. Pacelli was later to attain fame - or notoriety - as Pope Pius XII, who, in the years following the Second World War helped many Nazi criminals escape to South America these included such luminaries as Klaus Barbie and Martin Bormann. Yallop writes Hitler saw many potential benefits in the treaty, not the least that Pacelli future Pope Pius XII , a man already showing marked pro-Nazi attitudes, might prove an useful ally in the approaching World War. History was to prove that Hitler's assessment was accurate. (p. 98)

Dialectical theology to Christian Dogmatics in Outline 1927

No doubt the cry expressed in the 1919 Commentary on Romans captured the imagination of a generation confused, empty, and dismayed by the horror of World War I, the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, rampant inflation, political uncertainties, and immensely difficult living conditions in the traumas during and after the war.

Have failed he says But Aragorn says to him No You have conquered Few have gained such a victory Be at peace [LotR p405

A special comment from Tolkien worth pointing out is regarding the suffering of the Germans after World War II which truly shows the man's quality. One must remember that Tolkien had fought against the Germans personally in World War I and most of his friends had died on the fields of France. He has also seen his son go to the Second World War against the Germans and lived through the risk of losing him.

The Caribbean and Britain

African-descended people have lived in Britain for centuries, but the 500 passengers on the MV Empire Windrush's 1948 voyage from the Caribbean to Tilbury formed the vanguard of a widespread migration from Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean which has been dubbed recolonization (Phillips, 1998). The Windrush passengers were seeking educational and economic opportunities however, post-World War Two Britain did not prove immediately hospitable to His Majesty's 'other children,' and bitter conflicts over housing climaxed in the Notting Hill race riot of 1958 (Gilroy 1991). By the 1970s, Caribbean people were an acknowledged part of the British population and began to redefine British identity and develop black British culture. In this endeavor, Jamaican reggae, Rastafarianism, the British black power movement, and African liberation themes fused in black British dread culture which was hospitable to the migrations of black and womanist theologies in the late 1980s. The best-known proponents...

Dont Tell Me What To Do with My Body Sexual Control and Church Decline

It is no accident that the cultural revolution of the sixties is commonly known as the sexual revolution, for issues of sex and gender lay at its heart - and thus at the heart of the subjective turn. Following the dislocations of the Second World War, and in the shadow of the threat of nuclear war, the 1950s witnessed a nostalgic return to traditional values. 11 At its heart was a reassertion of a two sex and separate spheres ideology undergirded by a harsh sexual division of labor. Political power working through the mechanisms of the burgeoning welfare state was deployed to defend men's right to earn a family wage, whilst the dignity of womanhood was tied to the dutiful discharge of domestic labors within the home. Numerous cultural agencies legitimated this clamping down on some of the freedoms for women won earlier in the century, from the fashion industry which offered women the New Look to the churches which helped sacralize family and home - and were rewarded with a brief...

Return of the Ustashe

During World War II, Jasenovac was the site of the largest death camp in Yugoslavia for Serbs as well as Jews, Gypsies, dissident Croats, and others deemed undesirable by the Croat nationalist forces known as the Ustashe. The Ustashe regime lasted from 1941 to 1944 and was kept in power through its patron, Nazi Germany. The brutality of the Ustashe was such that even some Nazis complained about it. Parallel to their construction of an alleged genocide in Kosovo, Serb nationalists began alleging the imminent repetition of the Ustashe genocide of World War II, which was all too real and all too recent. The atrocities of World War II were relived continually in the Belgrade media along with the standard use of generic blame familiar from Kosovo. Just as Kosovo Albanians were, as a group, held responsible for German collaborators in World War II, all Croats came under suspicion for Ustashe activities in World War II. Both sides manipulated numbers. Serb nationalists claimed that anywhere...

The Madonna and the Concentration Camps

Unity Herzegovina And Croatia

Ture without acknowledgment of the long history and complexity of the relationship between the Franciscans and the Ottomans. 28 When European mediators attempted to reconcile the Catholic and Muslim population of Mostar, they were opposed by elements within the local Catholic clergy such as Tomislav Pervan, the provincial superior of 250 Franciscan friars in the Mostar region, who repeated the Tudjman propaganda that the Bosnian Muslims wanted an Islamic state. Friar Pervan went on to say that Islamic states don't have free speech, democracy, or freedom of religion, ignoring the irony of such a statement made in the wake of the brutal persecution of Bosnian Muslims by Serb and Croat religious nationalists, in the name of Christian states. 29 In the Herzegovinian town of Bobani, a Franciscan priest, the Rev. Vinko Mikolic, compared the Bosnian government to the Turkish occupiers. In the same town, the Catholic church features a large mural behind the altar showing the suffering of the...

Dream by Nancy Gaitan Interpretation by Bill Somers

The crash attracts much attention and commotion, but the prophetic person knows enough to flee the following judgment, whose description could well be that of a nuclear explosion, with it's mushroom cloud going miles into the air. This is signifying the judgment of nuclear war to follow the economic crash.

The Christ Prince Lazar

Easter week, and up until World War II, Jews in Europe would stay inside during Easter week to avoid being attacked. 1 In the Nazi-organized destruction of Jewish communities, the Christ-killer charge was also evoked it was particularly effective in inflaming European churches and individual Christians to collaborate with the persecutions.

The Romanian Orthodox Church since 1918 19181944

New bishopric centres were founded in Oradea, Cluj, Hotin (Balti), Ismail, Constanta (Tomis), Sighet (Maramures) and Timisoara. On the eve of World War II, the patriarchate had the following structure the metropolitan seats of Vallachia (with bishopric centres in Bucharest, Ramnic, Buzau, Arges, Tomis), of Moldavia and Suceava (with centres in Iasi, Roman, Husi, Galati), of Ardeal (with centres in Sibiu, Arad, Caransebes, Oradea, Cluj, later in Timisoara), of Bukovina (with centres in Cernauti, Hotin-Balti, later Maramures-Sighet), and of Bessarabia (with centres in Chisinau and Ismail). An army bishopric centre was also established in Alba-Iulia, as well as a Missionary Centre for the Orthodox Romanians in the USA and Canada, with its headquarters in Jackson, Michigan.

Biography and Context

Born on February 4, 1906, Dietrich was the sixth of eight siblings, including his twin sister Sabine, all born in the space of ten years. One brother, Walter, did not survive World War I another brother, Klaus, was to be executed for his own participation in the July 20, 1944 plot to assassinate Hitler. Dietrich himself did not live until his fortieth birthday, as he was hanged by the Gestapo at Flossenb rg concentration camp on April 9, 1945 for his own acts of resistance against Nazism.5 Dietrich's father, Karl Bonhoeffer, was a noted neurologist and professor of psychiatry at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin. Dietrich's mother, Paula -herself a university graduate and a descendent of a long line of pastors, theologians, and musicians - home-schooled her children.

Preliminary Critique of Christian Zionism

2 Regina Sharif, Non-Jewish Zionism, Its Roots in Western History (London, Zed, 1983) Douglas J. Culver, Albion and Ariel, British Puritanism and the Birth of Political Zionism (New York, Peter Lang, 1995) Ian Murray, The Puritan Hope (Edinburgh, Banner of Truth, 1971) Peter Toon, ed. Puritans, the Millennium and the Future of Israel Puritan Eschatology 1600-1660 (Cambridge, James Clarke, 1970) Donald E. Wagner, Anxious for Armageddon. (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, Herald Press, 1995) David A. Rausch. Zionism within early American Fundamentalism, 1878-1918 a convergence of two traditions. (New York Mellen Press, 1979) Grace Halsell, Prophecy and Politics, Militant Evangelists on the Road to Nuclear War (Westport, Connecticut, Lawrence Hill, 1986)

Paul Tillichs Theology of Culture

Paul Tillich was born in 1886, the son of a Lutheran pastor in a village near Berlin, Germany. By the age of 28, he had received his doctorate in philosophy, been ordained as a Lutheran pastor, and had served for several years in a church in a working-class neighborhood of Berlin. Within months of the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Tillich volunteered for military service and was appointed to serve as a chaplain in the Army. His first orders took him to the western front, where for 4 years he led services of worship, prayed with the dying, dug graves and buried the dead, and comforted troops whose faith and patriotism were corroded In an essay he wrote in 1946, in the immediate aftermath this time of the Second World War, Tillich referred to his earlier theonomous interpretations of culture as overly romantic. This has come to an end, he wrote, because with World War II, the end itself has appeared like a flash of lightning before our eyes. Now when he surveyed the products...

The Serb Church and the Stepinac Syndrome

In Bosnia, the Serb Orthodox Church made the same mistake the Catholic Church made in Croatia during World War II it became a servant of religious nationalist militancy. In many instances, Christian Serb clergy have supported the extremists who carried out the genocide in Bosnia and have given ritual and symbolic support to the programs of ethnic expulsion and destruction of mosques,

Passive Violence and False Humanitarianism

By nominal Christians, that is all the more reason for Christians to come to the rescue. He remarks on the silence of the archbishops of Canterbury, York, and Westminster and the British Council of Churches in view of the greatest moral outrage in Europe since World War II. He then draws a historical parallel Bishop George Bell of Chichester was a lonely voice 50 years ago when he spoke up for the Jews. Where is a Bishop of Chichester today 38 Sarajevo Archbishop Vinko Puljic, who has so courageously struggled for a multireligious Bosnia, approaches the topic with devastating understatement I think we had expected much more energetic voices against injustice from Western churches. 39 While it is true that differing churches have widely different views on the issue of just war and justified use of force, what was indisputable was the reluctance of major Christian church leaders to call the crimes in Bosnia what they were, genocide, and to demand a stop to them. To the extent that...

Christian Orthodox Category Iiib

The nationalist drive in the Romanian Church continued unabated, as scholarship attempted to re-create a distinct Romanian ecclesiastical past 9 During the period i892-ig o5 new conflicts arose between the churches of Romania and Constantinople over ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the regions of Epiros and Macedonia. The Romanians raised claims over Vlach-speaking communities, which they wanted to bring under the control of Romanian authorities on account of linguistic affinities.2o In i925 the assumption of patriarchal status by the autocephalous Romanian Church came about after consultations, which secured the ready agreement of Constantinople. The elevation of the auto-cephalous church of Romania to patriarchal status was the last symbolic act in the articulation and assertion of the national community of the Greater Romania produced by World War I.

Pre Conciliar Pascendi and Divino Afflante Spiritu

One of the keys to so much of this was that famous Encyclical of Pius XII to which we have already alluded, Divino Afflante Spiritu. And the moment moulded the man. So, who was Pope Pius XII 56 The life, and its conflicting interpretations, have sometimes overshadowed the thought and the theology. (1) Was he a conservative traditionalist (2) Against the backcloth of the Second World War, was he a conservative, 'timid', ineffectual and silent pontiff, hidebound by the manifold traditions of his Office, or was he a 'bold' pragmatist whose Roman circumstances under Nazi occupation dictated a need to work in strict secrecy pro bono populorum Advancement was swift i9i2 saw Pacelli as Acting Secretary of the Vatican Foreign Office and, after the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Pacelli was advanced to the position of Secretary of the Vatican Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Pope Benedict XV (reg. 1914-22) consecrated him Archbishop on 13 May 1917, and he became...

The New Age Movements Plans

Nuclear weapons will come under their control through some agency such as the UN. j. a special tasteless truth serum formula will be released into public water supplies to aid Satanists in interrogating people to determine their alligences. The antidotes have already been prepared for the occult groups. k. a helter skelter period of mass anarchy 1. an alien invasion m. a third world war n. another mid-east conflict

Intra Conciliar Dei Verbum and John XXIII

After war service during the First World War as a hospital orderly and military chaplain, Roncalli's career became stratospheric he served extremely briefly as Professor of Patrology at the Pontifical Lateran University in Rome (Pontificio Ateneo Lateranense) from November 1924 to 3 March 1925, before being appointed Apostolic Visitor in Bulgaria with the rank of Archbishop and the titular See of Areopolis.142 Diplomatic appointments to Istanbul143 (1934) and Paris (1944)144 followed.

The 20th Century Revival of Christian Zionism

In recent years, there has been much indication of the fact that this is about to be consummated, and we believe we are sat the very threshold of that glorious time when Israel shall be fully restored top the land again and the millennial rest will be ushered in by the coming of the Messiah. Many Bible students were quite certain some twenty or twenty-five years ago that we had just about reached that period in history when Israel would be restored to the land and it would be a signal for the return of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is a well-known fact established in history that when the tide of war was turning against the Allies in World War 1, it was a humble modest Jewish chemist, Dr. Chaim Weitzman, now world famous and very much in the news again, who came forward in the zero hour of the apparent defeat of the Allies with the formula for the most powerful explosive ever discovered up to that time, T.N.T., and donated the discovery to his beloved country, Britain, and that

The secular apocalyptic

As it has resituated itself in popular culture, the apocalyptic has held onto the doom elements but has sometimes loosened its grip on the hope for a redemptive outcome. As Daniel Wojcik has noted in his assessment of the secular apocalyptic, especially as it has developed since the end of World War II Instead of faith in a redemptive new realm to be established after the present world is annihilated, secular doomsday visions are usually characterized by a sense of pessimism, absurdity, and nihilism. 7 Wojcik finds the apocalyptic surfacing in such diverse places as cold war military preparations, beat poetry, monographs of doom by social scientists and environmentalists, cosmic disaster novels and movies, doomsday humor, and survivalist and punk subcultures. In all of these artifacts, a story is being told about the world falling to pieces, but in the absence of divine benevolence and purpose, the pieces won't be put together again.

Europeanizing the Bosnians

Croatian President Franjo Tudjman had fought in World War II with Tito's Partisans. By the time of Croatia's independence in 1991, he had changed from a communist into a religious nationalist. In his 1990 book Wastelands of Historical Reality , Tudjman revealed an anti-Semitic tendency. He suggested that Jews are genocidal by nature and that Jews were the major executioners in the Ustashe death camp of Jasenovac where an estimated 300,000 Serbs, Jews, and Gypsies were killed. 4 Earlier Tudjman had claimed that as few as 60,000 people died in all the camps in Croatia during World War II, a number far below the estimates by serious scholars of the Holocaust. 5 The problems of the Jews are of their own making, Tudjman implies Jews could have avoided them had they heeded what he calls, vaguely, the traffic signs.

The Growth Of American Pentecostalism

In its emphasis on speaking in tongues and its forms of worship. These are strongly experiential and involve prophesying, healings, and exorcisms. The Pentecostal worldview includes elements that relate easily and naturally to the folk religions of many regions of the world, especially in Africa and Latin America, such as the casting out of demons (a practice that tends to make Western academic theologians cringe with unease). The movement's populist worship style and apparent lack of intellectual sophistication have caused mainline denominations and the academy either to ridicule or ignore it. Yet Pentecostalism began a new phase of expansion after the Second World War, paving the way for its massive growth in the second half of the twentieth century. Even in the United States, Pentecostalism has overtaken most of the mainline denominations that dominated the American religious landscape from 1800 to 1950.8 Pentecostalism began to become respectable and accepted in white middle-class...

Whoever Financed Russell Had Big Plans For His Society

When the Berlin Conference in 1878 proposed a Zionist solution to the Jewish question, Russell threw together a hodge-podge of scripture to show that this event in 1878 had to be the beginning of the Millenial day. This Millenial day would then progress to the restoration of the Jewish Kingdom in 1914.27 Indeed, one of the plans to restore the Jewish bloodline of David with a united Europe with the aid of the European Freemasons was scheduled for 1914, but was delayed due to World War I.28

Catholic nationalism in Greater Hungary and Poland

The Hungary which became a co-equal partner with Austria in the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1867 was more than three times larger than the truncated modern state which emerged from the First World War, and which excluded 3 million Hungarians. Hungary before 1918 included Slovakia (which became part of Czechoslovakia) and Transylvania, which was transferred in 1918 to Romania. Croatia-Slavonia, which was 70 per cent Catholic and a little over a quarter Orthodox, and was to become a part of Yugoslavia, had its own institutions, but was subordinate to Hungary, with representation in the Hungarian government and parliament. Hungary was very diverse religiously. Where the Austrian half of the empire in 1900 was 91 per cent Roman Catholic (including 3 million Uniates), Hungary (excluding Croatia) was only just under half Roman Catholic (8,200,000 people) and another 10 per cent Uniate (over 1,800,000), mostly Romanian and Ruthenian. The remaining 40 per cent of the population included just...

The Significance of the Orthodox New Martyrs

Nevertheless, even for the Armenian, Syrian and Assyrian Christians 'new martyrs' remains a term largely applied to the victims of Ottoman Turkish persecution in the run-up to and during the First World War. It can be postulated that the term denotes resistance and is intrinsically linked with historical moments when the continued existence of the Church or the Christian community was threatened. It is reserved for those whose witness parallels that of the Christian heroes of the first era of martyrs, particularly the persecutions of Diocletian. The term ethno-martyrs can be viewed as a variation on the same theme. However, the differentiation might be taken to imply that their witness is mainly of local significance. Although some, like Ecumenical Patriarchs Cyril VI and Gregory V (d. 1821), are revered by Orthodox Christians of several traditions, the very title suggests that they were martyrs for the national cause as much as for the wider Christian commonwealth. This subgroup...

General Edmund Allenby

A sliver of northern Syria was amalgamated into a new Turkish state that Mustafa Lemal Ataturk was beginning to carve out of the rump of the old Ottoman Sultanate. Southern Syria was split into two new British territories, a mandate in Palestine (which the British promised twice over, to the Jews and to the Arabs) and a kingdom in Transjordan ruled by one of Lawrence's World War I allies, Abdullah, the brother of Feisal and the son of the Sherif of Mecca. Eastern Syria became part of British Iraq. The French got the hole in the map that was left, which they in turn subdivided by proclaiming an enlarged Lebanese state, known as Grand Liban, in order to strengthen their friends, the Maronite Christians, who would now have a large Sunni Moslem population under their thumb. Meanwhile, Lawrence's World War I comrade-in-arms Feisal the son of the Sherif of Mecca, required a reward for his services so the British set him up as the king of Syria in 1920. His kingdom lasted a hundred days...

Patrologiae Cursus Completus Series Latina

Special attention must be paid to the Supplementum of Migne's Latin Patrology (PLSup), published by A. Hamman, from 1958 to 1970 in five volumes. The updating of PL up to the early 1970s presents all patristic and medieval texts discovered and published since Migne's PL was printed. These new texts constitute many additions to Migne which would normally find their place in a new edition of the celebrated Patrologia. Even for small fragments of texts already in PL, if ever produced in a new critical edition, A. Hamman consistently indicates in full detail how the fragments have been edited as well as the manuscripts on which the newly reproduced texts are based, with an acknowledgment of their first publishers. In other words, not only is PL thereby updated, but at the same time an updated survey is secured for the critical work on Latin patristic sources completed in the first half of the twentieth century. Such an initiative, beneficial as it is for generations of students to come,...

Appendix B George Washingtons Vision

The most solemn part of the vision, however, is that which relates to a great catastrophic war that is yet to come, and which presages a fearful devastation of our country. The details of the vision were communicated to a Professor Totten by an Anthony Sherman, who was with George Washington at Valley Forge. Professor Totten published it in tract form in Our Race Leaflet in September, 1898. May the reader note that in the vision only those wars which involved America by invasion are considered. Thus the War of 1812 and the Civil War are spoken of since blood flowed on our soil in both of these wars. This was not true in the War of 1898, nor of World War II. The ominous red light apparently speaks of communism (which originated in this century), which has already reached Cuba, an island within 90 miles of our shores. Whether soldiers will actually land on our coasts may or may not be indicated by the vision, for weapons now devised can destroy at a distance. He said America will burn....

Recovering and criticizing the past

That and all the issues mentioned thus far can be seen as aspects of a pivotal modern theological concern the relationship of faith and history. In continental European Protestant theology this was a fundamental matter dividing Barth and Bultmann. When they were found wanting by successors such as Pannenberg and Moltmann it was again this issue that was central. It has likewise been a dominant concern in much British, North American, and Evangelical theology, and many new challenges in theology also focus on it in their own ways. It is perhaps in Roman Catholic theology that the implications of modern thinking about faith and history are most sharply underlined. This is partly because it was only in the third quarter of the twentieth century that Roman Catholic theologians could use modern historical methods without official disapproval. So, since World War II, there has been a hectic period of assimilation, reinterpretation, and controversy. It is symbolized in Schillebeeckx's...

History of the term Spirituality

'Spirituality' has become the standard word for the theory and practice of 'life in the Spirit', or of discipleship. However, in its present sense, the word has a relatively short history. The Catholic Encyclopedia, published before the First World War, contained no references to 'spirituality' while The New Catholic Encyclopedia, published in the 1970s, contained eight articles on different aspects of the subject. Standard reference works such as The Oxford Dictionary and Websters International Dictionary offer only one definition out of six that corresponds to spirituality as a religious area of study. This, however, supports a dualistic contrast between concern for 'things of the spirit' and material interests.

American Arabists and Changing American Attitudes to Israel

They were descended from the first Americans to travel to what became Lebanon and Syria, the missionaries, scholars and explorers, an extension of the ruling WASP of 19th Century America, but without the imperialist and colonialist agenda which drove much of European interest in the area. These men and women dominated American policy and shaped American perception of the Arab world until World War II. From the late 1940's, coinciding with the birth of the State of Israel, a significant change occurred in the US diplomatic corps, which reflected the country's new ethic and social diversity. But the dream of cultivating the inverse of colonialism was shattered by the outbreak of World War I when the traumatic effects of European geopolitical power struggles and colonial rivalries spilled over into the Holy Land. The vision of the American missionaries for a 'a borderless Arab nationalism' in which Syria followed the model of the United States becoming a liberal democracy was not shared...

Theology and Eliade The Sacred

Romanian in origin, Mircea Eliade was born in Bucharest on 9 March 1907. His early studies in that city's university, culminating in an MA dissertation on Italian philosophy in 1928, were followed by a spell in India studying Indian philosophy and Sanskrit at the University of Calcutta. His 1933 Romanian Ph.D. allowed him to take up a junior teaching post at the University of Bucharest. The years of the Second World War saw him as a cultural attach , first in London and then in Lisbon. From 1957, he was a Professor of the History of Religions in the University of Chicago, and in 1962 he became the Sewell L. Avery Distinguished Service

The Ultimate Form of Pessimism

Pessimism regarding the transforming power of the gospel of Jesus Christ in history is what best defines pessimism. There is no pessimism in the history of man that is more pessimistic than this pessimism regarding the power of the gospel in history. The universal destruction of mankind by nuclear war a myth, by the way1+ is downright optimistic compared to pessimism with regard to the transforming power of the gospel in history. This pessimism testifies that the incorrigible human heart is more powerful than God in history, that Satan's defeat of Adam in the garden is more powerful in history than Christ's defeat of Satan at Calvary. It denies Paul's doctrine of triumphant grace in history 'Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound (Rem. 5 20 KJV). Does grace struggle so that sin might more abound in history

Tale of Two Cities Past and Future

There is fear and apprehension about the future. On the one hand, science and technology promise a world of dazzling prosperity. Yet on the other hand, nuclear war and biological and chemical terrorism threaten the very existence of our world. A great charismatic leader in Europe will arise, responding to this crisis. He will enter into an alliance

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church after the Balkan Wars

Exarch Joseph spent a little over a year and a half in Sofia. His health was failing, but, as always, he was working tirelessly to strengthen the positions of the Church. After his death on 20 June 1915, thirty years passed before a new exarch and primate of the Bulgarian Church was elected. At the time of the exarch's death the international political situation was extremely complicated. The First World War had been raging for nearly a year, but Bulgaria was prudently keeping its neutrality. On 6 September 1915, however, a treaty with Germany was signed and the country threw in its lot with the Central Powers. At the end of September 1915 a general mobilization was ordered and on 14 October Bulgaria declared war on its western neighbours. After the country's entry into the war the Bulgarian Exarchate began to restore its external dioceses, lost a few years earlier. When at the end of November 1915 Bulgaria took back Vardar Macedonia from Serbia, the metropolitans of the Exarchate who...

7 Councils of Heresy

The plan was to create a world government. Three world wars would be created.1 The first would set up an illuminati controlled government in Russia. The second world war would allow them to conquer Europe from their secure base in Russia. The third world war would be an imitation of the Biblical Armaggeddon. These wars were to occur during the 20th century. The 20th century was to be a century of terror and war, so that by the time the third world war was over, the world would beg them for the New Order. They would be asking them to bring in the strong One-World-Government that they wanted to establish. We would ask them for what they wanted to do over 200 years ago.

Confirmation By Prophecies

Besides, unlike the biblical prophets, she made numerous predictions that turned out to be false-that Red China would plunge the world into war over Quemoy and Matsu in 1958 that World War Ill would begin in 1954 that Castro would be banished from Cuba in 1970. My favorite is that she predicted Jacqueline Kennedy would not remarry-and the very next day, she wed Aristotle Onassis he said with a chuckle.

The systematic agenda

Eschatology deserves special mention. The twentieth century opened with the rediscovery by academic theology of its importance in the New Testament. Secular eschatologies (of progress, socialist revolution, empire, or race) have had immense influence in modern times, but mainstream Christianity had largely ignored the eschatological dimension of its own origins. When it was widely recognized, partly under the pressure of secular alternatives and the crisis of European culture and society manifest in World War I, then it gave a new standpoint for thinking through Christianity. There was a great variety of eschatologies, and the unavoidability of the question has been one of the distinctive marks of twentieth-century - in contrast with nineteenth-century - theology.

The Background To The English Civil

The English Civil War was one of the most significant intellectual and political landmarks in the history of English-speaking Protestantism. Until the end of the Second World War, this pivotal event in English history tended to be evaluated from the perspective of the ultimate winners the royalists and Anglicans and thus a critical, often abusive, account of the agendas and concerns of both Parliamentarianism and Puritanism.9 In the 1960s, the history of the English Civil War was rewritten. Puritanism, it was now believed, was a less radical force than had hitherto been believed. In line with the broader revisionist perspective that was then sweeping the field of seventeenth-century English history, Puritans were seen as deeply conservative figures who were closely allied with the political and religious establishments in England until the hostility of Charles I's regime forced them into violent opposition. Unsurprisingly, the winds of historiographical change have changed direction...

Redefining Catholicism Trent and beyond

Historians have employed different terms over the years to designate sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Catholicism. 'Counter-Reformation' considered the developments within the Catholic Church to have been basically a reaction to the Protestant Reformation, and it evoked images of the Inquisition and the Index of Prohibited Books as well as the political and military measures of the religious wars. Many Catholics long countered this one-sided view with a similarly partisan position. They preferred 'Catholic Reform' and argued that the church had begun the necessary process of reform long before 1517. The Protestant Reformation accordingly bore the responsibility for the division within the Christian body. A compromise solution found widespread acceptance in the ecumenically minded post-World War II decades the movements

Reasons for this research

172 The main writers to have specifically addressed Christian Fundamentalist Zionism are Donald E. Wagner, Anxious for Armageddon (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, Herald Press, 1995) Hassan Haddad and Donald Wagner, All in the Name of the Bible, Selected Essays on Israel and American Christian Fundamentalism (Brattleboro, Vermont, Amana, 1986) David A. Rausch. Zionism within early American Fundamentalism, 1878-1918 a convergence of two traditions (New York Mellen Press, 1979) Grace Halsell, Prophecy and Politics, Militant Evangelists on the Road to Nuclear War (Westport, Connecticut, Lawrence Hill, 1986) Middle East Council of Churches, What is Western Fundamentalist Christian Zionism rev. edn. (Limassol, Cyprus, MECC, 1988) and Naim Stifan Ateek, Justice and Only Justice, A Palestinian Theology of Liberation (Maryknoll, New York, Orbis, 1990)

Inter Church Relations and Ecumenism

Between the two World Wars, many Orthodox churchmen of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, of Greece, of the Balkans, and of the Russian emigration took part in the ecumenical movement. Several private associations of churchmen and theologians promoted understanding between Eastern Orthodoxy and the 'Anglo-Catholic' branch of Anglicanism in this period. After World War II, however, the Orthodox Churches of the Communist-dominated countries failed to join the newly created World Council of Churches (1948) only Constantinople and Greece did so. The situation changed drastically in 1961, when the Patriarchate of Moscow applied for membership and was soon followed by other auto-cephalous churches. Before and after 1961, the Orthodox consistently declared that their membership did not imply any relativistic understanding of the Christian truth, but that they were ready to discuss with all Christians the best way of restoring the lost unity of Christendom, as well as problems of...

From Schleiermacher to Barth

As the nineteenth century wore on and Romantic disaffection with industrializing societies became accommodated in the structures of feeling and intellect (simultaneously institutionalized in certain structures of resistance to it, such as universities, and also nostalgized as charming stodgy technophobia), the critical leverage of Schleier-macher's apologetics was lost, and his dogmatic analysis of religion within determinate cultural forms increasingly anchored all theology. This was reinforced by the increasing sophistication of historiography the German history of religions school increasingly confirmed the deep connections between an era's intellectual achievements and its cultural and historical conditions, and its lessons were appropriated in constructive theological work, so that later nineteenth-century theology, culminating in Ernst Troeltsch, emphasized culture's determination of theology (see Troeltsch 1923 , 1979). (Troeltsch's work so emphasized this determination that it...

Christianity Sources of Authority and Right Doctrines

The paradigm, then, discloses a situation in which salvation depends on a Church, an institutional, divinely founded custodian of what are considered to be 'right doctrines', led by a Leader, an individual custodian of those doctrines who claims God-given authority. The logic of all this dictates that a 'flawed' or potentially 'flawed' leader, or one whose authority is questioned or whose credibility is undermined in any way, may be a positive danger and thereby preside over a 'denied' salvation. Instances of this range from the vicissitudes of the Avignon papacy63 to the accusations levelled, in modern times against Pope Pius XII (1939-58) that he did little to help or protect the Jews from persecution, deportation or death during the Second World War.64

Modern Theological Figures

After World War II, the Serbian Orthodox Church had very restricted possibilities for activities until the middle of the 1980s. Using Kosovo as an unresolved problem within Serbia and Yugoslavia, the Serbian Orthodox Church offered itself as the traditional bastion of national security and the centre of national life, as evidenced by its centuries-long role as the single institution that 'never in history betrayed the Serbian people'. The ideological basis for such an assertion emerged from the synthesis of the teachings of Nikolaj Velimirovic and Justin Popovic, two 'enduring examples and models of modern Serbian spirituality'.

King Josiah And Revival

After the great Wales awakening, that swept the world in 1904 through 1912, World War I broke out and millions of people who were saved in that great revival, their lives were taken in the war. It seems that God always extends his great hand of mercy, before he sends judgment. (The same pattern is seen in the Cambodian Revival of the early 1970's.)

The Twentieth Century and Beyond

The mood changed, and with it theology, after the First World War (1914-18). The Dialectical Theology of Karl Barth and his associates, inspired by Kierkegaard among others, attacked the culture Protestantism of Harnack and the Liberals and began a new era in Protestant theology. Over the next two decades, controversies between Barth and Bultmann, then Barth and Emil Brunner, brought the unity of the original group to an end and sowed the seeds of the various theological options that were to dominate theology in the coming decades. Bultmann and Paul Tillich (1886-1965), each in his own way, appropriated existentialist philosophy in order to bridge the gap between Christian faith and modernity. The most important work of Protestant theology in the twentieth century, Barth's monumental Church Dogmatics, began to appear in the early 1930s, just as a second great crisis overwhelmed the nations of Europe and eventually much of the world. One could argue that the great challenge of...

New Horizons In History

While our interest is concentrated on the Near East in the present volume, a perspective in space is as necessary as one in time. It has well been emphasized by thinkers that no science can be regarded as solidly established while there is any serious gap in recording and interpreting accessible evidence. So it is with archaeology. Until within the past few years little had really been done outside of the classical fields of Europe and the Near East. After the World War local and regional archaeological work received a great impetus and there is now scarcely a corner of the earth's land surface where some excavation has not been undertaken and where nothing is known about past cultures. It is quite certain now that no early civilizations worthy of the name ever arose outside of the Near East, India, China, Middle America and western South America. Since the First World War our direct archaeological knowledge of China before the first millennium B. C. has been carried back to the...

From Tillich to today

Paul Tillich realized this limitation of Dialectical theology, and from his disaffection he developed a position that attempted to incorporate these theologians' critiques of the cultural situation alongside (or within) an affirmation of cultural energies as attempting to express the depth dimension present in all human experience. The point of Tillich's project, the first to be generally known as theology of culture, was fundamentally diagnostic it sought to help culture understand and respond to its real longings. Building upon a cultural ontology which proposed that religion is the substance of culture, culture the form of religion, Tillich developed a quite complex picture of humans as culturally determined, yet equally culturally creative - though that creativity emerges from their encounters with the depth dimension of their lives. Furthermore, his method of correlation sought to identify and articulate the latent hopes, anxieties and understandings of a culture which may be...

The Vicissitudes of the Twentieth Century

During a deep political crisis that divided Greece regarding its participation in the First World War with either the English or the Germans, the Archbishop of Athens Theokletos (1848-1930) anathematized the popularly elected Prime Minister of the country in one of the most memorable events of Greek history, on 12 December 1916. In the central square of Athens, in front of an effigy of Venizelos made with the skull of a donkey and stones, he himself read the text of anathematization, in front of thousands of frenzied supporters

Three things must happen

This will lead to the destruction of Damascus the Bible speaks of. Israel will use nuclear weapons, and the world will quake. The end result will be the U. N. putting ground troops in Israel, and dividing the land, which Joel tells us is the precise reason God gathers the nations for judgment, because they divided His land. We can't say that Israel will have no other choice but to call on the Lord in this situation. There is another possibility. This has happened before and she fought to the death in 70 AD at the destruction of Jerusalem and later at Masada where all the Jews committed suicide. This time she has an arsenal of nuclear weapons at her disposal. Anwar Sadat knew this and decided to make peace. Today's Arab leaders seem to have forgotten it.

What the Messiah is Supposed to Do

The great Chofetz Chayim, the leading Rabbi around a century ago, said that the war of Gog and Magog will take place in three stages. The first stage, he said, was World War One. He predicted that the second stage would be much worse, and he predicted the precise year of the beginning of World War Two.

Christianity beyond the West

Given Karl Marx's hostility to religion as an 'opiate of the people' and an obstacle to progress, and given Communist governments' attempts to establish total control over the lives of their people, it is not surprising that the church under Communism was often treated with ruthless hostility. In Russia, for example, the 46,000 churches of the pre-revolutionary era had been reduced to a few hundred by the late 1930s. But the state was also capable of changing its policy toward the churches when politically expedient, as Stalin did during the Second World War when he realized how useful the churches

The Jewish Religion Its Influence Today by Elizabeth Dilling

Elizabeth Dilling was a widely known critic of Judaism prior World War II until her death in 1967. In writing Jewish Religion, Ms. Dilling chose her research materials with care. Her primary source, the Soncino Talmud, was produced by the finest scholars of Judaism. The Rodkinson Talmud was a monumental work endorsed by Rabbi I. M. Wise, a pioneer of Reform Judaism. Rabbi Dr. Louis Finkelstein, author of The Pharisees The Sociological Background of Their Faith, became president of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America shortly after his book was published, where he was remained for more than 30 years. Thus, Ms. Dilling's research spanned the best that Conservative, Orthodox, and Reform Judaism had to offer in the English language. She also drew from the 12-volume Jewish Encyclopedia, which, though a century old, still stands as a monument to Jewish mainstream scholarship the 10-volume Universal Jewish Encyclopedia from the early 1940's US Government State Department Records, The...

There Will Be Some Who Will Blame The Good Lord For The Suffering That Is To Come

Because the New World Order has studied mankind so indepth, it can operate sucessfully by playing upon the lusts, fears and desires of men. Repeatedly, they manipulate things so that the world begs them for what the Satanists already want to do. This has repeatedly happened and will continue. The world is already calling for a global government. After a third world war and or an alien invasion, they will be begging to be enslaved by a One-World-Government. Computers and satellites have been built to give the New World Order the capability to monitor and control all activities on earth. In order to facilitate this total control a cashless society is in the process of being established. Nuclear plants and nuclear weapons are coming under the control of Satanists. Lists of all Christians and potential troublemakers to the New World Order already exist, just waiting to be used when the orders are to be given to arrest such people.

The War in Our Public Schools

The anti-Christian tenor of these social engineers after World War II and especially since the 1960s represents a dramatic change in American history. Most Americans would probably be shocked to discover the dominant influence of Christianity in America's colonial culture and schools, where the Bible was routinely used as a textbook.

The First Four Trumpets

The chain reaction, which will follow, is the very thing that will lead immediately into World War III. It will be the last war that mankind will ever fight Before this final three and one-half years comes to a complete end, all military forces around the world will have been destroyed, every economy will be decimated, several billion people will have died, and vast destruction will cover every part of the earth.

Appendix E Richard Pipes

Why the Soviet Union Thinks it Could Fight and Win a Nuclear War These contrary views of war were affected differently by the coming of nuclear weapons. In the U. S., atomic and thermonuclear bombs were considered absolute weapons, capable of destroying a society or even a civilization, and against which there was no defense. Thus, Clausewitz's dictum that war is an extension of politics was considered dead. Since nuclear war could serve no rational political purpose, the function of strategic forces should be to avert war. Because of the vast destructiveness of nuclear weapons, a sufficiency of weapons to retaliate was believed to be enough. Numerical superiority was thought to have little meaning. To ensure a stable balance, in which conflicts could be resolved by negotiation, the USSR should even have the ability to do unacceptable second-strike damage to the U. S. This concept of mutual deterrence, or mutual assured destruction, became U. S. policy and as nuclear delivery...

Rutenberg and the Russian Revolution

His role in the birth of the American Jewish Congress was immense the young Russian intellectual, in other words, revolutionist, soon made his influence felt in the underground council of the Social Revolutionary Party. Rutenberg was the man who, in 1905, piloted the revolutionary activities of the notorious Father Gapon and then sat in judgment and brought about his execution. In Italy, during the first World War, he got in touch with Vladimir Jabotinsky, founder of the Jewish Legion. In New York in 1915 he got in touch with the representatives of the Social Revolutionary Party there, Dr. Chaim Zitlowsky and Dr. Samuel Ellsberg, who were now interested in the Poale Zion party, Palestine, and Jewish rights.

Kierkegaards Achievement

In Britain, it was the Scottish theologians H. R. Mackintosh and P. T. Forsyth who did more than anyone to introduce Kierkegaard to the British public. In Britain and America, however, Kierkegaard's influence remained insignificant until after the Second World War, when the translations undertaken by Alexander Dru, David F. Swenson, and Walter Lowrie made Kierkegaard known in the English-speaking world. It was above all in Germany, however, that Kierkegaard's influence was most keenly felt. Although the first German translations of Kierkegaard's works had begun to appear in the 1860s, the First World War and the subsequent disintegration of the optimism and historicism of prewar liberal theology lent a new significance to Kierkegaard's work and led to him becoming a significant figure on the German theological and philosophical landscape. Kierkegaard's exposition of the human condition, his emphasis on the transcendence of God, the paradoxical nature of the incarnation, and the leap...

The Impact of the West

Modern Islamic history is commonly defined as beginning with the impact of the West, or more specifically of European imperialism - its first arrival, its spread and the process of transformation which it initiated (Lewis 1996 273). This impact has been dated either from the defeat of the Ottomans by Russia in 1792 or from the arrival of Napoleon in Egypt in 1798, and it gained momentum in the nineteenth century. For different natural and historical reasons, Turkey, Egypt, and India became the first regions to encounter the conflict between Islam and the West. The transformation of Turkey serves as a standard example of the process of Westernization in Muslim lands. The first dose of Westernization was injected into the traditional Ottoman system in the era of Selim III (1789-1807), in the form of borrowed Western technologies of war. But this initial step caused a strong pressure towards the imitation of the West in all aspects. A few decades later, new reforms, called the Tanzimat,...

The Life and Writings of Henri de Lubac

Henri de Lubac was a Jesuit theologian who was educated at Jesuit centers in France and England before World War I. (Unlike some of his confr res, he received no other formal academic training.) In that war he was badly wounded in the head, a wound which affected him somewhat throughout his long life. In the interwar years, he was the central but sometimes shadowy figure of a diverse new theological tendency in France which demanded a rejection of neoscholasticism and a qualification of the scholastic stress upon speculation with a renewed interest in history, biblical exegesis, typology, art, literature, and mysticism. (Other important names are Jean Dani lou, M.-D. Chenu, Henry Bouillard, Yves Congar, and Gaston Fessard.) The initial aim was ressourcement - a recovery of the riches of Christian tradition, especially prior to 1300. The eventual aim though, was a renewal of speculative theology in a new mode that would restore its closeness to the exegetical, mystical, and liturgical...

The Myth of Economic Globalization

The economic arguments are complex, but can be summarized. First, it has been argued that high levels of social expenditure on the welfare state correlate positively (in regions such as Scandinavia) with competitive advantage in the world economy, so it is not true that globalization means the end of the welfare state. There is no reason to expect deeply rooted domestic institutions to be radically altered because they adversely affect the profitability of firms. This is particularly true of the welfare state, which remains extremely popular among most citizens of the OECD. Second, productive capital and foreign direct investment (FDI) are not as mobile as had been thought. Such movement occurs in certain cities and industries, primarily in the great trading blocs, although here too national boundaries remain important. Domestic producers, especially in the United States and Asia, still largely satisfy domestic demand. Indeed, FDI flows as a percentage of gross domestic product in...

Common Spirit unnatural fellowship

Ukrainian Catholics are reburying the remains of their spiritual leader, Cardinal Slippe, who died in exile in Rome. It's a moment in which modern nationalism taps into its ancient religious roots. Uniate Catholicism is found nowhere else it's a mixture of Catholicism and Russian Orthodoxy, it's 400 years old and it's the very core of Western Ukraine's distinctiveness. The honour guard at Cardinal Slippe's burial is a sinister crew, white shirted paramilitaries of the Ukrainian right, who claim descent from the guerrillas who fought, sometimes alongside the Nazis, against the Red Army in the Second World War. Nationalism is where religion and authoritarianism sometimes meet it is the dream of unity, everyone singing the same hymn and moved by the same inspiration.

In the Crosshairs of the Sniper

In December 1993, a resident of Sarajevo walked out of his home. He was the father of the graduate student who had been killed trying to save books during the burning of the National Library in August 1992. He had fought against the Nazis in World War II as part of the Partisan resistance, alongside Croats, Serbs, Slovenians, and others. After the war, he had been imprisoned by Tito's secret police. In his fedora, he was a handsome man with kind eyes and a thin, hawkish nose. Those crosshairs were a nexus of myth and symbol the Christ killer myth constructed in the nineteenth century and brought back into the present through the 600th anniversary of Lazar's death, a fabricated genocide against Serbs in Kosovo, and manipulation of Serb suffering in World War II to indict all Croats and Muslims and instill fear that another genocide was imminent. Yet the rifle sights were not enough to cause the shot. Someone had to load and distribute the guns and give the order to fire.

The nineteenth century Creativity and crisis

The post-World War I twentieth century began with a reaction against him led by Barth, who yet always acknowledged his greatness. Schleiermacher is the grandfather of those who attempt to correlate or integrate faith with modernity, and particularly of those who see the point of contact in human interiority - Tillich's ultimate concern. He is the principal creative sponsor of the whole revisionist and liberal enterprise, but he himself constantly eludes simple categories in those used above he seems, according to interpretation, to oscillate between the third and fourth types. Finally, overlapping the two centuries is Ernst Troeltsch (1865-1923), who in many ways summed up the nineteenth century and is the indispensable background for the twentieth. He saw the Enlightenment, not the Reformation, as the genesis of modernity, and the main nineteenth-century development as that of a comprehensive historical consciousness. So, while constantly in dialogue with the theology of...

Keyword theology of religions

(3) Paradigm Jews and Christians The most intensive place where today westerners learn how to dialogue is the debate between Christians and Jews. This dialogue got intensified after World War II and the terrible experiences of the time of Nazism when millions of Jews were sent to and murdered in German concentration camps, and Christians became aware that most of the murderers had been baptized. Christians, at first, were shocked and silenced, and then they learnt what it means to show respect for the other subject.10 Since then the Jewish homicide is reason to reexamine the conversation with the adherents of the Old Testament fundamentally.

The Western Recognition Of The Need For Indigenization

At the dawn of the twentieth century, Protestantism was at best a minority presence outside the West, sustained largely by Western missionaries. The great Edinburgh mission conference of 1910 had set an agenda that was interrupted by the outbreak of the First World War. Once the war was over, Western Protestants turned their attention to renewing and reinvigorating the missionary enterprise.2 Yet it soon became clear that things were changing. The war which had seen death and devastation on an unprecedented scale created serious difficulties for the entire missionary enterprise. How could Christianity be commended to the world when Christian nations had caused and participated in so scandalous a war Although this trend was not without importance in the period between the two world wars, the scholarly consensus is that the history of global Christianity began to move in significant new directions after the Second World War. Some of the most prominent activists for political...

An Authentic Case of a Christian Epimetheus

Carl Schmitt (1888-1985) was born into a strongly Catholic family in Plettenberg, Westphalia. His modest origins and his religious identity perhaps contributed to his ambition and also to a certain incorrigible insecurity. Trained in legal studies, he rose rapidly from academic obscurity to an appointment at the prestigious Friedrich-Wilhelm University in Berlin in 1933, a position which he lost after World War II because of his complicity with the Third Reich. His advancement was assisted by a prolific outpouring of books and articles on jurisprudence, constitutional and political theory, and broader cultural topics, all written against the backdrop of the Weimar Republic and its fluctuating fortunes. Schmitt's writings reflect his skepticism about the reigning neo-Kantian philosophy of law and about legal positivism, his concern for the viability and legitimacy of Weimar democracy and a fascination with dictatorship, and his Scholars disagree about Schmitt's involvement in the death...

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church

History In 1596 the Metropolitan of Kiev (Kyiv) and most of his suffragan bishops renewed union with Rome at the Synod of Brest (in present-day Belarus). (A previous primate of the Church, Isidore, had supported the Union of Florence.) The Metropolia of Kiev was entirely within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and as the latter's support - and size - waned, so did the union. Ukrainian Cossacks, followed by the tsarist government, consistently opposed the union in favour of Orthodoxy. By the end of the nineteenth century, the Church was restricted to the Austro-Hungarian realm, having been banned in the Russian Empire. Owing in part to the benign treatment of Greek Catholics by the Hapsburgs, who provided, for example, university education for the clergy, a sincere commitment to Catholicism developed, reaching its height in the twentieth century. When the Soviets took control of western Ukraine after World War II and declared the Church united to the Orthodox Patriarchate of Moscow...

International relations

Confronted twice with world war, Temple was no pacifist. He subscribed to just war theory, and considered pacifism as a universal principle to be heretical in tendency (York Diocesan Leaflet, Nov. 1935). This position was based on three considerations. First, the Gospel fulfills the law and the prophets, and does not supersede them. The kingdoms of the world have their place by God's appointment, with powers and rights to be exercised in obedience to God's laws. If necessary, we must check the aggressor and set free the oppressed (RE 176). Second, we are willy-nilly members of societies and citizens, and need to engage in the civic enterprise of justice, not stand aside from it (KG 86f., 91 TWT 28f.). Force is an indispensable element in the ordering of life, to be used according to that law which expresses the highest welfare of humanity. Temple's sacramental sense led him (rather unwisely) to use here the phrase the consecration of force (Church Assembly Report, 4 Feb. 1932...

No fire without smoke the texture of colonial Christianity as the backdrop to Ethiopianism

Certain forces from the home bases of missionaries combined with the emergent modes ofAfrican appropriation to reshape the face ofAfrican Christianity in the period from 1885 to the First World War. The Berlin Conferences of 1884-5 that initiated the partition of Africa by the European powers had an enormous effect on the relationship between the white missionaries and the Africans. The impact of colonial rule brought the gospel down to the grassroots and gave missionaries new opportunities to attempt to domesticate their values in African cultural terrains. Africans responded by weaving Christian strands of their own. Similarly, the World Missionary Conference of 1910 endeavoured to reformulate a new vision of the missionary enterprise even though it had no powers of enforcement. The dominant note of ecumenical consolidation of the vision kept the missionary spirit alive in the midst of growing institutionalisation, rivalry within the enterprise, the resilience of primal cultures,...

Just war and pacifism

There are many varieties of pacifism (Yoder's Nevertheless (1971) distinguishes thirty-four types ) of which three are especially important. First, so-called 'pacificism' is not pacifism in the strict sense but the belief that war has become intolerable or irrational. Much of the pacificism which followed the First World War collapsed during the 1930s as it became clear that the world was faced with an evil so radical that even the horrors of modern war could arguably be justified as the only viable collective response. There are times when the pacificist's insistence on the evils of war is a much-needed corrective to any temptation to make light of war, but pacificism of this first kind cannot contribute deep insights into the moral realities of war precisely because it rests exclusively on a contingent judgement of the proportion between the evils of a particular kind of war and the estimate of the good at which the war might be aimed.

The Orderings of Creation

We now may be at a sufficient distance from the Second World War to offer a cogent theological appraisal. Now consider a different example globalization. How should globalization be thought of in the perspective of a doctrine of creation, as related to the Creator God A benign reading might argue that trade is a part of the basic - universal - conversation of humanity and that its extension is likely to benefit all participants, if not equally (Sen 1999 see also chapter 33 on Globalization by Peter Sedgwick in this volume). A more cautious reading would argue that the economic and ecological aspects of such intensification of trade require careful attention, together with an account of whether people participate in such global processes unequally (or not). I do not plan to argue the matter out here. What, however, is clearly indicated is that a theological account of the present global order is required that is attentive to universal and normative aspects as universalizing, does...

Encounter with Other Religions

Even before the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, the relations between the Serbian Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church were burdened by many problems, including Rome's position on the persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during the Second World War, the question of language and alphabet in Croatia, the Kosovo problem, the Catholic Church's attitude to the Macedonian Orthodox Church, and so on. The Roman Catholic Church objected that the Serbian Orthodox Church had 'substituted the cult of St Sava as its imperialist ideology for the Gospel'. Although Patriarch Pavle and Cardinal Kuharic met several times between 1991 and 1994, and Serbian Orthodox leaders and the Croatian president exchanged letters, relations between them became increasingly tense. Several attempts to arrange a visit by Pope John Paul II to Belgrade failed. The controversy about the number of churches destroyed, the silence of the Catholic Church about the position of the Serbian...

The purpose of prophecy is ethical

The fact that many who study the prophetic writings today are more interested in finding possible references to space travel and nuclear weapons than in discovering God's commandments for living, is a sickening tribute to modern apostasy. The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy (Rev. 19 10) to ignore Jesus in favor of atomic blasts is a perversion of Scripture, a preposterous twisting of God's holy Word. From beginning to end, John is intensely interested in the ethical conduct of those who read the Book of Revelation

The Contemporary Situation in the Middle East and the Diaspora

One seat in parliament is reserved for the 'Assyrians', a name that unites the members of the Church of the East and the Chaldeans ('Catholic Assyrians'). Although life in general is safe and Christians are allowed a certain amount of freedom in their religious practices, the Islamic constitution of the country does not allow Christians to occupy high governmental or military positions. Restrictions in business are in place, and the juridical system favours Muslims over religious minorities. Most Syriac Christians live in Tehran, but sizeable Church of the East and Chaldean communities are still found in Urmia, which in the nineteenth century was the centre of the Church of the East in Persia. During the First World War, many Assyrians of Iran fled north to what was then Russia. Besides a considerable Assyrian community in Moscow, the now independent countries of Georgia and Armenia have sizeable Assyrian communities, many of which have retained modern Aramaic as their...

What Shall We Say To All Of These Things

In the war that's coming we will not be defeated, but we will be hurt. We will be neutralized. We're not going to come out of it unscathed. China and Russia are both going to invade our territory. There's going to be tremendous nuclear, or limited nuclear warfare. But tremendous bombing and a new type of weaponry that is going to hit the east and the west coasts of the United States. And those cities. The purpose in that is to desolate the populous areas. So then when invasion troops and invasion forces come in there'll be fewer people that they have to deal with.

Democratic Transition and Transformation

The Allied victory over Germany, Italy, and Japan in World War II was hailed by the West as a victory for democracy and soon led to the establishment of democratic governments in those countries. Shortly after the war, India and many countries previously under colonial rule, notably in Africa (e.g. Botswana, Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda), gained their independence. All of them adopted democratic constitutions. Other examples of transition from oligarchic or authoritarian control occurred in Spain and Portugal, as well as in several Latin American countries (e.g. Nicaragua, Argentina, and Chile) and some in Asia (e.g.

Steps towards cooperation and greater unity

The decades following the Second World War were an important period of transition for the Orthodox in the United States. Most importantly, the demographics were changing. There was a notable decrease in immigration of Orthodox especially after the 1920s. This meant that the composition of most parishes was rapidly changing and they were losing their immigrant character. At the same time, new parishes were being established in the suburbs beyond the traditional centre of immigrant life in the inner cities. The majority of the parishioners were born and educated in America. They were less in contact with the politics and issues of the land of their grandparents. These people were more frequently marrying beyond their ethnic communities. There was also a gradual increase of marriages between Orthodox and Roman Catholics or Protestants. In addition, people coming from other religious traditions were beginning to embrace the Orthodox Church and its teachings. This movement would increase...

The Coming of the World Church

How then can we sum up the situation of Catholicism at the end of the twentieth century, one marked by the immense and murderous catastrophes of two World Wars It proved a bloodstained century, with 55 million being killed or starving to death during the Second World War (1939 45). One act of wilful murder stands out, the Shoah. Adolf Hitler (1889 1945) and his collaborators systematically exterminated nearly six million European Jews, one million of them children. Along with Nazism, the Communism of Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) and of Mao Tse-Tung (1893-1976) marked the century until, at least in Europe, this ideology officially ended when the Berlin Wall came down in November 1989. The sudden collapse of the Soviet Union was perhaps the most surprising event in the entire century. It is worth recalling how, when the Council opened in October 1962, the Cuban missile crisis had brought the USA and the Soviet Union to the brink of a nuclear war. John XXIII (pope 1958 63), who had called...

Contemporary Problems

The individual sufferings and the destruction of empires effected by the First World War convinced many that war was no longer a legitimate instrument of foreign policy. Something had to be done to outlaw war, so it was felt widely but with insufficient universality. The League of Nations was created as a framework for the prohibition of all but defensive war. It failed to contain the resentments and ambitions of defeated Germany and victorious Japan it failed to involve the mighty US in preserving the balance of power it left out the self-preoccupied USSR. The Second World War completed the tendency of industrialization to forge an intimate link between science and war. For the first time a group of the world's greatest scientists worked in deep secrecy on a military project and invented nuclear weapons. Military thinkers at once began to wrestle with the wholly new idea that peace might be located not in prohibitions and restraints or international organizations but in terror....

On Jews Nazism and the Holocaust

The war funding for Hitler occurred through the firm I.G. Farben. I.G. Farben, an international cartel based in Germany, then dominated the world's chemical and drug industries. By the beginning of World War II, I.G. Farben had become the largest industrial corporation in Europe. This firm was controlled by the Rothschilds, who steered this operation through their related banks and companies. Hitler had Jewish blood running in his veins on his grandmother's side. Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's Minister of Propaganda, was a Jew with a false identity. Other leading Nazis also represented the brotherhood in the Nazi party. The evil face of God was fully exposed in the Jewish holocaust. The extreme reaches of this evil is found in the origins of World War II. Why was Adolf Hitler given a copy of The Protocols of the Learned Elder's of Zion by a Jew called Rosenberg He decided on a pogrom against the Jews after reading them. Mein Kampf was subsequently published. His extreme anti-Semitism was...

No Cross Getting Cross over the Cross

Another cross has also caused major controversy. This one is six feet tall and is on a rock that sits thirty feet above the Mojave National Preserve in California. A group of World War I veterans built the cross as a memorial in 1934, where it has stood since. The memorial is about twenty feet off a two-lane highway where an estimated twenty cars pass every day. According to local resident Wanda Sandoz, You don't even see it unless you are looking up at the right place. But that was apparently immaterial to the ACLU, which filed a suit against the National Park Service in March 2001, citing the First Amendment Establishment Clause. The federal district judge concurred and ordered that the cross be covered with a brown canvas, to the dismay of local veterans who consider the cross a historic monument. The veterans acknowledge that it is a Christian symbol, but say its primary thrust is not religious, but to honor the American war dead. Local U.S. Congressman Jerry Lewis proposed a land...

Jesus in Sociological Perspective

The forty years from the outbreak of the First World War mark something of a hiatus or diversion in 'life of Jesus' research, dominated as the period was by the reassertion of a dogmatic christological perspective (Barth) and an (in effect) equally dogmatic kerygmatic perspective (Bultmann). Consequently, it will make better sense to delay till the next section (see 5.3 and 4 below) consideration of both the contribution of Bultmann and the wrestlings of the immediate generation with Bultmann's heritage in terms of the tension between history and faith. That the Bultmann epoch does indeed constitute something of an interruption both in the flight from dogma and in the quest itself, however, is also confirmed by the fact that from the mid-1970s onwards the concerns which had dominated the old Liberal quest reasserted themselves in two forms.

Paul Erdman

In Asia the United States was seen as a big crybaby. The Americans had, to a man, been for free trade as long as the rest of the world lay in ruins after World War II. Peoples everywhere were desperate for all those things which only America could supply. They bought them regardless of either price or quality. But when the productive facilities of the rest of the world were finally renewed, the Americans suddenly found that they were no longer able to compete with Japan and Hong Kong and Taiwan and South Korea in steel and automobiles and consumer electronics and textiles and even computers. When free trade no longer meant easy profits for Detroit or Silicon Valley -- what did they do Instead of working a little harder, they tried to force the government in Washington to close up their markets by establishing import quotas. And when it worked, they said to the foreigners Too bad. We have to look after ourselves for a change.

Temples Background and Life

Under these influences, and by natural temperament, Temple developed a Christian philosophy. In Mens Creatrix (1917) he declared that the philosophic task was to think clearly and comprehensively about the problems of life. He assumed that the universe was rational, and that by reason the human mind could grasp it whole. He believed the world's principle of unity embraced not only the intellect but imagination and conscience too the sciences, arts, morality and religion. All these converged toward, but did not meet in, an all-embracing system of truth. Temple then adopted the Christian hypothesis, centrally the Incarnation, to supply the missing unity. Undeterred by World War I, he tried in Christus Veritas (1924) to construct a Christocentric metaphysic rooted in the Incarnation. Within it he crystallized a set of principles, centered on the nature of persons, for addressing social questions, and these were deployed at the 1924 Conference on Christian Politics, Economics and...

President George W Bush

New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman joined the fray in a column entitled The Real War on November 27, 2001. In it he argued that the real enemy in the War on Terror was not terrorism. Terrorism is just a tool, said Friedman. We're fighting to defeat an ideology religious totalitarianism. He said we fought World War II and the Cold War to defeat secular totalitarianism, but that this new war was aimed at defeating religious totalitarianism. If, by that, Friedman meant merely that we are not at war with Islam or all Muslims, he had a legitimate point. Instead, Friedman used religious totalitarianism generically. It's a view of the world, he said, that my faith must reign supreme and can be affirmed and held passionately only if all others are negated. That's bin Ladenism.

Conscientious objection to military service

In the early 1990s outrages committed during the military-political disintegration of the former Yugoslavia prompted the UN to institute a war crimes tribunal for the first time since the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials after the Second World War. Such a tribunal raises numerous issues of which perhaps the most fundamental concerns individual responsibility. The UN appears to be reiterating that individuals and states are morally and legally accountable for their actions in war and rebellion. To impose this doctrine on warring factions in the former Yugoslavia is one thing to incorporate it into our own public life by according due respect to conscience that is informed by the just war principles is another and in some ways a more searching task. In this as in so many ways there is much to be done and much guidance to be derived from the universally valid Christian just war tradition.

Homeland and Diaspora Politics

While the Serbian Orthodox Church has been autocephalous and independent throughout its history, it has nevertheless remained closely tied to the state. It has been financially dependent on the state and thus susceptible to state influence. The Church, which viewed itself as a protector of the Serbian people, operated according to this principle. It did not regard the national question as a separate political problem, but as a form and an aspect of religion thus it acted as a national, and not solely religious, institution. During the period after the Second World War, religious communities were gradually, and increasingly, moving from social and political life towards the margins of society. The revitalization of Orthodoxy occurred in the mid-1980s, during the period of the collapse of the socialist system and the liberalization of social relations. It was especially active during the 1990s in granting substantial moral and material support to the Serbian population in territories...

Misunderstandings of the Hope

These people rejected much of the Scripture as being literal and believed in the inherent goodness of man. World War I greatly disheartened this group and World War II virtually wiped out this viewpoint. No self-respecting scholar who looks at the world conditions and the accelerating decline of Christian influence today is a postmillennialist (p. 176).

Forms of Discourse about Globalization

The reason for caution lies in the way in which, again and again, history gives examples of economic transformation coming to a stop and instead turning into a slow, inexorable process of decline, for a variety of cultural and political reasons (Landes 1998). The first example comes from the fact that the European economy, and especially that of Russia, went into reverse after 1914, initiating a series of protectionist economic policies, civil wars, and ultimately a total breakdown of economic relations, which finally created the global catastrophe of World War II. It took many years to recover from the catastrophe, so that only since the 1990s have politicians and academics begun to use the language of world trade and international relations common before 1914. A second example is that of fifteenth-century China, where the state controlled technical progress. The Ming dynasty (1368-1644) prohibited overseas trade for over a century. The country's lead, built up over several...

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