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prince...created a culture, a 'Rosicrucian' state with its court centered on Heidelberg.

The Stuarts were intimately involved with the spread of Freemasonry, and are regarded as the source of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry.43 Although certainly the groundwork had been laid by that secret Tudor prince Sir Francis Bacon.(See chap. 1.2)

During the Stuarts reign, advocates of all kinds of extreme millenial views appeared in the Anglican church and the Puritan movement.44

An Edinburgh translation of a German work Dornier, On the Person of Christ had an appendix by Dr. Fairbaim which introduced Socinianism to its British readers in the 17th century. In the year 1691, this appendice's thought appeared in Dr. Bury's Naked Gospel. The Naked Gospel, which was too much for Orthodox thinkers, was publicly burned. Whiston in 1708 kept the stream of thought flowing, as did others until in 1782, with Priestley and Belsham as leaders, the Unitarians met in London for the first time as a church body. Priestley, himself became in succession an Arian, a Socinian, and lastly a Unitarian.45

The relationship between several types of thinking can be summed up by quoting from an article "Unitarians" in the Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, & Schools of Religious Thought. "Modern Unitarians, the school of Priestley, who are principally of England and America, are the successors rather than the lineal descendants of the Socinians the Unitarian sect was formed out of the Arianism floating in the Church and in dissent. This Arianism sprung from the Dutch Remonstrant theology, which was largely studied in England. (Arminianism.) Historically, Arminianism has led to Arianism, and thence to Socinianism and Unitarianism."46

Socinianism had strong German and Polish Jewish ties and origins. In other words, although some of these "isms" are thought of as Christian heresy, if a person examines back to their roots, one discovers their roots in the past were not Christian.

Initially, the Unitarians used Presbyterian chapels for worship, but later shifted to Puritan churches.47

Prof. F.A. Christie has done a scholarly work entitled "The beginnings of Arminianism in New England" which details how the early Puritan church in New England had advocates for Arminianism within it. The beginnings of the Unitarian movement in the U.S. go back to the first Puritan settlers, some of which were Unitarians, but nominally called Puritans.

The Puritan churches are now called Congregational Churches. The Congregationalist, Rev. Experience Mayhew, gave a message in 1744 in favor of Arminianism. Another minister, William Pynchon, in 1650, wrote out in favor of liberalism in his Meritorious Price of our Redemption. The beginnings of the Unitarian movement go back to the first Puritans, and some of these families involved links to Jewish blood lines.

The Universalist movement also can be studied in the lives and writings of such Puritan pioneers as Rev. John Murray (1816) and Rev. Elhanan Winchester (1836), Jonathon Mayhew (1763-64) and Charles Chauncey. Chauncey's Universalist views can be seen in such works as "The Mystery hid from Ages and Generations..."(1784)46

The historian will also note that these liberals were in correspondence with British Unitarians. Thomas Belsham's "Memoirs of the Late Reverend Theophilus Lindsey M.A. ..." (1812) provides a look at the communication kept up between the British and American liberal Congregationalists. (They weren't yet known as Unitarians.)

There were also ties to Jews. For instance, one prominant early Unitarian minister, Rev. Samuel J. May, records how close his family was to the Jewish family of M.M. Hayes. M.M. Hayes was also an active Freemason, and Samuel called him "uncle."

Perhaps to date, the best historical look at the movement is Richard Eddy's "Universalism in America, Vol. I 1636-1800.

HARVARD COLLEGE (now university)

Harvard was started by the church and became a hotbed for liberals such as Henry Dunster and Charles Chauncey. For instance, Rev. Joseph Avery (1751-1824) graduated from Harvard with honors in 1771 and went forth as a prominent Congregational minister practicing magic. (The Salem Witch Trials were but a small distortion of the symptom of an occult problem under the Puritans. Some hold that the witches were the ones who were involved in condeming the women. If so, that would tie in with other information, that indicates one of Joseph Smith's ancestors was involved in condeming the women to be burned.)

EARLY LINKS BETWEEN UNITARIANS & MASONIC REVOLUTION

Harvard, a church school, brought in professors like Karl Follen of Giessen, Germany. Karl Follen helped create the Bund der Jungend (League of Youth) in Europe which was a revolutionary movement with links to the Carbonari and the Masons. These movements at times moved under the guise of the Swiss Bible Society. In August 1819, ministers met at Carlsbad, Germany and denounced the movement, which then was broken up by the arrests of its members.

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