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the West Indies.) The Scottish Rite's Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection was created in Charlestown in 1783. Also the Order of Palladium (the Palladium Rite) had been started soon after 173 0 in Charlestown.39 (The significance of this last point will been seen later.)

One of the original founders of the Mother Supreme Council, Scottish Rite, at Charleston, S.C. was Abraham Alexander. Abraham Alexander was the chazan (reader) for the Bayh Elohim Jewish Congregation,40 and later a Rabbi.41

Another Jew involved in founding the Scottish Rite at Charleston was Moses C. Levy. He was a man of great learning who became the president of the Bayh Elohim congregation.42

The Inspector General appointed by the Grand Consistory of Princes of the Royal Secret to oversee Masonry in the British colonies in the New World was Stephen Morin, a Jew. Morin was joined by the Jewish Mason Moses M. Hays in Jamaica. Moses M. Hayes established the Sublime Lodge of Perfection in Boston, Mass.43 The Jewish Mason Abraham Da Costa worked with Morin to establish Masonry in Charleston, S.C.44 They set up the King Solomon Lodge. Morin forged Frederick the Great's signature on his Masonic documents to gain credibility. Another Jewish Mason, Isaac Dacosta, in 1758 working with Moses M. Hayes established the St. Andrew Lodge in Boston, and helped out in S. Car. Dacosta helped establish the Charleston Lodge of Perfection, and served as one of its Grand Masters. Joseph M. Meyers, another Jewish Mason was his successor.45 The Jew Moses Cohen, who was originally initiated into Masonry in Philadelphia, was one of the first members of the Mother Lodge in Charleston.

From the two mother lodges in Boston and Charleston, S.C. came many of the Scottish Rite lodges.46 Charleston, S.C. would also be known as the cradle of Reformed Judaism. Interestingly, the Jew Isaac Harby who fathered Reformed Judaism in Charleston is called "Pallas Athena" in the Jewish author Max Dimont's book The Jews in America, (Simon & Schuster, 1978), p. 93. The significance of this will be discussed soon.

And Charleston, S.C. would be the place the Civil War conflict began. Mason Brig. Gen.Beauregard ordered the first shots on Fort Sumpter.

One other prominant Jewish founder of the Mother Supreme Council, of the Scottish Rite was Israel de Lieben, a prosperous Jewish merchant.47 And yet another Masonic merchant who participated in establishing the Mother Supreme Lodge, believed to be Jewish and having a monopoly on the world's Indigo (purple dye) trade, was Moses Lindo.48

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