Phrenology was "immensely popular among those turning away from formal religion." Three avid students of phrenology who also supported John Brown and his sons,(besides the actual secret six) were Dr. Samuel Howe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Sen. Charles Sumner.
Masonic historians have tried to characterize John Brown as anti-Masonic, but this Author finds nothing to substantiate that claim. They make a big deal that supposedly John Brown said the rituals were "silly". Whether he did or not, simply calling the rituals "silly", is no indication he was anti-masonic. Indeed, his uncle was the master of the Hudson Lodge No. 68 where he was "raised" as a Mason.54 John Brown worked with him and other Masons during his lifetime without any problems.
For instance, August (Anschel) Bondi was a Jewish Freemason who fought with John Brown in the Kansas "battles" of Blackjack and Osawatomie.55 One might better describe these battles as butcheries. Anyway, this Jewish Freemason Anschel Bondi, before he joined with Brown, was a long time revolutionist having fought in the Masonic created Metternich revolution, and against Spain in the Masonic created revolution in Cuba.56 (The Scottish Rite's New Age Magazine has
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