19 So I scattered them among the nations, and they were dispersed throughout the countries; I judged them according to their ways and their deeds.
God says that He scattered the Israelites from their own land. The word Diaspora means a scattering of the Israelites to other countries. Let us see the relevant dates of when this scattering historically took place.
Israel was divided into two kingdoms, a Northern Kingdom and a Southern Kingdom. In 721 B.C., the Assyrians conquered the Northern Kingdom, which comprised the ten tribes of Israel, and took them captive. All of the Israelites who were taken captive never returned to the land of Israel. However, a remnant of the ten tribes managed to escape captivity and joined the Southern Kingdom of Judah, which comprised two tribes of Israel known as the Jews. (2 Chronicles 30:6-11)
In 586 B.C., 135 years after the fall of the Northern Kingdom to the Assyrians, the Babylonians conquered the Southern Kingdom of Judah comprising the two tribes, Judah and Benjamin, plus the remnant of the other ten tribes of Israel who had escaped being taken captive by the Assyrians. The Babylonians took the Jews into captivity and removed them from the Southern Kingdom to Babylon. However, once again a remnant escaped and remained in the Southern Kingdom of Judah. (Nehemiah 1:2)
In 538 B.C., Babylon fell to Persia. By this time the captured Jews had been 48 years in captivity. Cyrus, king of Persia, freed the Jews and gave them permission to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple. Under the leadership of Zerubbabel, many Jews returned to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple, which was completed in 516 B.C.
In 301 B.C., Ptolemy, the Greek general, who succeeded Alexander the Great, took Jerusalem from the Persians and ruled over Judea.
In 63 B.C., Pompey, the Roman commander, took Jerusalem from the Greeks and Judea then became a Roman protectorate.
The period 4 B.C.-27 A.D. saw the birth, the crucifixion and the resurrection of the Seed of Abraham, Jesus Christ. This is the most central event in God's Plan for All, which will lead to the fulfillment of all parts of the Abrahamic Covenant.
In 66-70 A.D., the Jews revolted against the Roman Empire under Emperor Titus. This revolt was crushed in 70 A.D., when up to one million Jews died and the Romans destroyed the temple in Jerusalem.
In 132-134 A.D., the Jews again revolted against the Roman Empire under Emperor Hadrian. The Romans also crushed this revolt, and approximately 580,000 Jews were killed. This revolt is known as Bar-Kokhba's revolt after the name of the Jew who led it.
Most of the Jewish population who survived these two revolts were either sold into slavery or exiled to other countries.
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