Contents

Preface and Acknowledgements vii

Abbreviations x

1 PREPARATION FOR A THREEFOLD SIEVE 1

1.1 Whose Agenda for the Twenty-first Century? 1

1.2 The Twentieth Century Revisited: Surveys and Approaches 16

1.2.1 The Way of the Historian of Religion 17

1.2.2 The Way of the Anthropologist 20

1.2.3 The Way of the Traveller 25

1.3 Methodologies for a New Millennium 27

1.3.1 Phenomenology, Husserl and Heidegger: Object 28

1.3.2 Semiotics and Eco: Sign 30

1.3.3 Theology and Eliade: The Sacred 32

1.3.3.1 The Sacred and the Profane 35

1.3.3.2 Mircea Eliade, the Sacred and Islam 36

1.4 Case Studies 38

1.4.1 Case Study Ground Zero: Object 38

1.4.2 Case Study Ground Zero: Sign 38

1.4.3 Case Study Ground Zero: The Sacred 40

1.5 Samuel Huntington Revisited 42

1.6 Conclusion 43

2 ORTHODOXY AND HETERODOXY: A WORN VOCABULARY EXPLORED 45

2.1 Rejecting the Terms: Baldick contra Popovic and Veinstein 45

2.2 Christianity: Sources of Authority and Right Doctrines 48 2.2.1 The Authority of the ekklesia (1): Arius and Arianism 53

2.2.2 The Authority of the ekklesia (2): Augustine, Manichaeism and the Flesh Rejected 57

2.3 Readings: Christianity 65

2.3.1 Reading the Phenomena of Christianity 65

2.3.2 Reading the Signs of Christianity 67

2.3.3 Reading the Sacred in Christianity 69

2.4 Islam: Sources of Authority and Right Doctrines 72

2.4.1 The Authority of the Text (1): Ibn Hanbal and the Text Transcendent 83

2.4.2 The Authority of the Text (2): Al-Ghazall and the Isma'lll Imam 86

2.5 Readings: Islam 88

2.5.1 Reading the Phenomena of Islam 88

2.5.2 Reading the Signs of Islam 92

2.5.3 Reading the Sacred in Islam 100

2.6 Conclusion 103

3 THE Flight TO TRADITION: A PARADIGM Of

RETURN AND DENIAl 106

3.1 Christian Tradition: Definitions and Distinctions 106

3.2. Shadow and Spirit: The Second Vatican Council 109

3.2.1 Pre-Conciliar: Pascendi and Divino Afflante Spiritu 109

3.2.2 Intra-Conciliar: Dei Verbum and John XXIII 118

3.2.3 Post-Conciliar: The Spirit and Practice of Marcel Lefebvre 120

3.3 Sunna: Definitions and Distinctions 125

3.4 Neo-Ijtihad and Return to the Salaf 127

3.5 Tradition, Purification, Kenosis and Return 139

Notes 147

Bibliography of Works Cited 205

Primary Sources 205

Secondary Sources 210

Contemporary Media Sources 228

Index 232

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