Like Karl Marx, "Father of modern Socialism," Moses Hess (18121875) was born in Germany of Talmudic rabbinical ancestry, being steeped in Orthodox Judaism by the rabbi grandfather who raised him. He was active with Marx and Engels in promoting Communism which, he held, could best be achieved on a worldwide scale through Jewish Hasidism and Nationalism, or Zionism, based upon Orthodox Judaism. That he remains a pillar of present-day Zionism is illustrated by the fact that the Jewish press has recently announced removal of his body to Israel.
"He collaborated with Marx in writing, 'Die Deutsche Ideologie' (1845) ... his continued publicizing for practical socialism in Germany earned him a sentence of death after the 1848 revolution." (Universal Jewish Encyclopedia)
His chief work, authorities agree, was "Rome and Jerusalem"
(translated by Meyer Waxman and published in the United States in 1945 by the Block Publishing Co.). He rushed home in 1848, says the translator, from Paris, "taking an active part in the armed resistance of the people." (page 22) "In 1845, Hess engaged in propagating the Communistic idea and founding societies devoted to its realization, an occupation which led Arnold Ruge to describe him as 'The Communist Rabbi Moses."' (pp. 21-22)
It is stated that, "The fundamental principle of Hess' thought ... is based on the teaching of Spinoza, of which he was a devoted follower," but he went further, says the translator, in expounding the "basic unit" of mind and matter, "the basic unity and its various unfoldings."
Thus, he was considered a better pagan philosopher, even than the Jewish pantheist, Spinoza.
The translator quotes from a later article of Hess (page 30) in which Hess holds that Judaism: "began with the family of the individual and will finally end with a family of nations" (page 30). The Orthodox Jews have, "in his opinion, a much higher and truer conception of Judaism. They have retained ... the kernel of Nationalism, and the desire for Jewish restoration ... He advocated the colonization of Palestine . he also dreamed of a Jewish Congress, demanding the support of the Powers for the purchase of Palestine ..." (page 32) [page 70]
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