Hadrian was Emperor of the Roman World empire from 117 A.D. to his death, 138 A.D. In 132 A.D. the Jews began a revolt, and for four years carried on a bloody war. Otherwise Hadrian's reign was peaceful.
The reason for this Pharisee revolt is told by Rodkinson in his History of the Talmud:
One of the causes of the great revolt against the Romans at this time was the prohibition by the Roman government of the study of the Torah [Talmud] they rebelled, led by Bar Kochba. Rabbi Aqiba (Akiba) was the first to become his adherent, who journeyed from town to town, inciting the Israelites to rebel It is not surprising, therefore, that Hadrian was not contented barely with the massacre of the sages of the Talmud, but was intent also on the destruction of the Talmud itself he decreed that if any of the old rabbis should qualify a young rabbi both should be put to death believing that with the death of the elder generation the Talmud would be forgotten and Israel would blend with the nations and its memory be obliterated; because he very well knew that as long as the Talmud existed there was little hope for the assimilation of the Jews with other nations. This decree however, was not executed the efforts of Hadrian met with no success He saw the Talmud still existing uniting Israel into one people, and establishing it still more firmly as a national and religious whole the Talmud regained its former power and influence. (Emphasis supplied)
And the pupil of one of the contemporary rabbis "Rabbi Jehudah the Nasi" (the "prince") became "the compiler of the Mishnah" (or laws of the Talmud). (See Exhibit 14 and Exhibit 15) In 553 A.D. Emperor Justinian forbade the spread of the Talmudic books throughout the Roman Empire. (Corp. Juris. can. VII Decretal, lib V, Tit. IV, cap. 1)
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