The doctrine of redemption is set forth by the precise meaning of the original words: (1) Autpow, Autpov, Aurpwoiq. This word root in all three forms is used eight times and only of the one who received redemption (cf. Luke 1:68—"redeemed his people"). (2) ¿YopdZw, used thirty-one times, meaning to be in the 'agora' or place of assembly and market, hence to buy for one's self by a price freely paid (cf. Rev. 5:9—"... hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation"). (3) e^ayopdZw, used four times, meaning to purchase out of the market not to return (cf. Gal. 3:13—"redeemed us from the curse of the law"). (4) dnoAuTpwoiq, used eight times, meaning a full deliverance of the soul from sin and of the body from the grave (Rom. 3:24; 8:23; 1 Cor. 1:30; Eph. 1:7, 14; 4:30; Col. 1:14).

1. In the Old Testament. (a) Israel is redeemed as a nation out of Egypt (Ex. 6:6; cf. Isa. 63:4). (b) One animal should be redeemed by another (Ex. 13:13). (c) A lost estate could be redeemed by a kinsman (Lev. 25:25). This practice becomes a type of Christ's redemption. There were four requirements in the type as likewise four with the antitype: (1) A redeemer must be a near kinsman. To fulfill this Christ took upon Himself the human form, entered the race. (2) He must be able to redeem. The price of redemption must needs be paid, which in the antitype was the blood of the Son of God (Acts 20:28; 1 Pet. 1:18-19). (3) He must be willing to redeem (cf. Heb. 10:4-10). (4) He must be free from the calamity which occasioned the need of redemption, that is to say, he could not redeem himself. This was true of Christ, for He needed no redemption. According to the type of the high priest on the Day of Atonement, then, Christ offered sacrifice but not for Himself (Luke 1:35; Heb. 4:15).

Of the above, (1) and (2) are related more especially to Christ's humanity and (3) and (4) to His Deity.

2. In the New Testament.

a. the need of redemption. All are slaves because sold under sin (Rom. 7:14; 1 Cor. 12:2; Eph. 2:2) and helplessly condemned to die (Ezek. 18:4; John 3:18; Rom. 3:19; Gal. 3:10).

b. the same price for all. To redeem from sin called for death by blood-shedding. A substitute, however, may take the sinner's place. (Heb. 9:27-28).

c. no return. When spiritually redeemed, as disclosed by e^opd^«, the emancipated one never returns as such to his former slavery. The Redeemer will not sell a slave He has bought (John 10:28).

d. emancipation. So, also, the redeemed are loosed from bondage—not even bound as slaves to the Redeemer. They are set free. The Redeemer will not own a slave who is not one by choice (John 8:36; Rom. 8:19-21; Gal. 4:31; 5:13). The slave may become a willing bondslave (Ex. 21:5-6; Ps. 40:6-8; 1 Cor. 9:18-19; 2 Cor. 5:14-15).

e. the gospel appeal. (1) God has undertaken for the needs of lost men. (2) Christ became a kinsman redeemer. (3) Man's lost estate ends in eternal woe or the second death. (4) Christ, however, has now paid all demands against sin. (5) 'AYopd^w—'to purchase in the market'—may become something experimental through e^opd^« and dnoAuTpwoiq. Observe that one may realize what is signified by e^aYopd^M only through the immediate application of redemption, which follows upon personal faith since it is something to believe.

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