Predestination

In its doctrinal significance, predestination is almost identical with foreordination (see at the proper place). Predestination accordingly speaks of the divine purpose as related to men and angels. God's decrees, however, relate to all things, material and immaterial. Sin then is decreed, the saved one's destiny is predestinated. The word predestinate means 'to mark off,' but the doctrine relates only to certain functions of the divine purpose. Salvation is according to election. Certain...

Bibliology

Having been considered at length in Volume I of this work, this, the first major division of Systematic Theology, need be given no more than a brief restatement here. Nothing could be more fundamental in the sphere of human knowledge than that God has caused His own Word to be written in a form which man can comprehend and has preserved that Word through the ages of human history for the benefit of all men. The extent of the field of knowledge thus added to man's own restricted observation is...

Types Systematic Theology

The word type may be defined as a divinely purposed illustration of some truth (ScofieldReference Bible, p. 4), accordingly a prophetic act, institution, person, thing, or ceremonial. The words for type are 1. tunoq, meaning a blow, or the imprint thus made which may serve as a pattern. Note the various translations of this word root a. Ensample (1 Cor. 10 11 Phil. 3 17 1 Thess. 1 7 2 Thess. 3 9 1 Pet. 5 3). b. Example (1 Cor. 10 6 1 Tim. 4 12 Heb. 8 5). c. Figure (Acts 7 43 Rom. 5 14). e....

Pauline theology

Pauline theology is a modern classification in theological study, usually made in contrast to that of Christ, John, or Peter. Paul was the divinely chosen agent to develop the Christian system for New Testament readers since previously it had appeared only in part with the teachings of Christ. To the Apostle was given two distinct revelations (1) that of the way of salvation and of life under grace (International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, p. 2291 cf. Gal. 1 11 -12) and (2) that of the...

Providence

The Greek word for providence is npovoia, translated thus but one time in Scripture (Acts 24 2) and then of a Gentile king. The theological term suggests (cf. provide) the directing care of God over things animate and inanimate embracing things both good and evil especially over those who are yielded to His will. Providence is the divine outworking of all decrees, the object being the final manifestation of God's glory. He directs all things perfectly, no doubt, yet without compelling the human...

Inspiration

As applied to Scripture, the term inspiration means 'God-breathed' (2 Tim. 3 16-17) and more particularly that the words of Holy Writ are derived from God. All Scripture is said to be God-breathed, not as the Revised Version might suggest Every scripture inspired of God or, God-breathed is also profitable Regarding the Scriptures and plenary, verbal inspiration, it may be said that no other explanation has been the belief of the church from the beginning. The English word inspiration is from...

Salvation

The Greek for salvation, owrnpia is used about fifty times in the New Testament. It refers to the estate of one who has been made whole. 1. Scope. The general doctrine of salvation includes the following lesser dogmas substitution, redemption, reconciliation, propitiation, conviction, calling, election, predestination, sovereignty, free will, grace, repentance, faith, regeneration, forgiveness, justification, sanctification, preservation, and glorification. 2. The Work of God. Two Old Testament...

Babylon

The Old Testament traces the origin, history, and destiny of the ancient capital city of Shinar (Gen. 10 10 14 1). It is not within the scope of this outline study to trace the history and development of the ancient city itself. The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia presents this history quite fully and from the Biblical viewpoint. The name Babylon means 'confusion,' and is linked with disorder from the day of the confounding of human language as recorded in Genesis onward to the final...

Conversion

Conversion, which appears forty times in the original (emotpe ), means no more than a turning about, and calls for a twofold treatment, namely 1. Physical Implications. In this the first use of the terminology convert or conversion the meaning to be conveyed is no more than the turning about of a physical body. At various times it is declared of Christ that He turned or turned about (cf. Matt. 16 23, atpe9 ), which intimates simply that He turned His body about. He was thus converted. Christ...

Confession

Confession is an outward expression of an inward conviction. It assumes three distinct forms in the Bible. 1. Of Christ. The individual's confession of Christ is to be seen in two particulars a. as savior. Of this particular confession of Christ the Scriptures declare That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness and with the mouth...

Foreknowledge

The foreknowledge which God possesses must be distinguished from mere prescience or knowledge of future events. Prescience may depend upon the will of creatures for its immediate execution or for its expectation, but foreknowledge in God is that which He Himself purposes to bring to pass. In this way, then, the whole order of events from the least detail unto the greatest operates under the determining decree of God so as to take place according to His sovereign purpose. By so much, divine...

Messiah

The word Messiah contemplates Christ as the final or greatest Prophet, the final Priest, and the final King. In Psalm 2 2 indeed two Persons of the Godhead are distinguished Jehovah and His Messiah. The New Testament rendition of the word, Messias (A.V.), used twice (John 1 41 4 25), no less than its Old Testament predecessor means 'anointed.' The common and real Greek equivalent in the New Testament is the title translated Christ. The entire field of prediction relative to Jehovah's coming one...

Law

Law is a term used about 200 times in the Bible, meaning a rule which regulates human conduct. Six subdivisions of the Bible doctrine of law follow 1. Natural, Inherent, or Intrinsic. That which God requires of every creature because of His own character, as it is written Be ye holy for I am holy (Lev. 11 44 1 Pet. 1 16). This law was binding upon all, from Adam to Moses (cf. Gen. 26 5 Rom. 2 14-15 5 12-14). 2. Prescribed by Man (Gen. 9 6 Matt. 20 15 Luke 20 22 Acts 19 38 1 Tim. 1 8-10 2 Tim. 2...

Millennium

The term millennium is used to indicate the period of Christ's reign on the present earth which Revelation 20 foretells. It is far more accurate and satisfactory to speak of this period as the kingdom, however, than to indicate merely the time during which it continues (as with the terminology, millennium). The early church was concerned with the doctrine of chiliasm (which term is drawn from the Greek word for thousand, as millennium from the Latin). The fact of a millennium indeed was held by...

Sabbath

The word Sabbath means cessation or complete rest, with no added implication relative to worship or spiritual activity. Sabbath is a transliteration from the Hebrew word for 'repose.' 2. General Facts. The Sabbath originated with creation's work being completed (Gen. 2 2-3). b. There is no mention of a seven-day week between Genesis 2 and the giving of the Law in Exodus 20. Then it was made a part of the law system with extra Sabbaths, a Sabbatic year, and a year of jubilee (cf. Gen. 7...

Adam

God sees but two representative men and all humanity is comprehended either in one or the other. He sees the first Adam with a race fallen and lost in him, and He sees the Last Adam with a new creation redeemed and exalted in Him. Vital distinctions are observable between these two headships. The truth revealed respecting Adam may be divided into that found in the Old Testament and that found in the New Testament. 1. According to the Old Testament. The Old Testament contribution to this...

Marriage

Marriage is one of the oldest institutions in the world. It was established by God in the Garden of Eden (Gen. 2 21-25), was blessed by the presence of Christ in the wedding at Cana of Galilee (John 2 1-11), and is declared by the Apostle to be honorable in all men (Heb. 13 4). The Old Testament records plural marriages, and that with the most prominent of the saints. However, according to the record in the primeval Garden of Eden, it was doubtless God's intention that a man should have one...

Peace

Peace is the opposite of anxiety in the heart and of either discord or enmity between individuals and nations. Four aspects of peace should be considered 1. With God (Rom. 5 1). That means the believer is now and forever on a peace footing in his relation to God, because he was justified. This aspect of peace is never an experience. It is wholly positional. 2. Of God (Phil. 4 7 Col. 3 15 cf. Heb. 13 20). Referring not to position but to an experience, Christ said My peace I give unto you (John...

Baptism ritual

In approaching the theme of ritual baptism it is recognized that over this subject the most bitter divisions have been allowed to arise in the church divisions and exclusions for which it is difficult to account in the light of two facts (1) the great majority of those who are given to separations confess that there is no saving value in the ordinance and (2) all who look into it with freedom from prejudice recognize that fruitful, spiritual Christians are to be found on each side of the...

Tithing

Tithing, or giving to God a tenth, is one practice antedating the law and still to this day a common usage. 1. Before Moses (Gen. 14 17-20 cf. Heb. 7 1-10). 2. In the Law. The tithe became, in the main, God's method of support for the Levites and priests. Tradition added much more to the law of tithing than it required originally (Matt. 23 23 Luke 11 42). 3. In Contrast to Grace. Under grace, benevolence will function not of necessity or because of any law requirement rather does the Christian...

Intermediate state

The doctrine of an intermediate state concerns the estate of the redeemed between death and resurrection of the body. Some treatment of this theme is usually incorporated into works on Systematic Theology as a phase of Eschatology. There is little or no direct teaching on this doctrine in the Old Testament yet when the Synoptic Gospels are considered as a continuation of the Old Testament revelation, as indeed they should be considered, much light is thrown on the Hebrew Scriptures respecting...

Eternity

Under this general theme consideration is properly given to eternity itself, eternity in relation to God, to time, and to the gift of God which is eternal life. 1. Definition. No thought ever confronts the finite mind which is less intelligible than that of eternity, and it is probable the idea that eternity will never end is more comprehensible than that it never had a beginning. In fact, the human mind cannot grasp the extent of that which is eternal. Philosophers and theologians alike have...

Criticism

According to its broad usage the word criticism indicates more than an unsympathetic attack upon what is written in the Scriptures it reaches out to incorporate analysis and evidence in general, and proves as advantageous in establishing that which is true as it does in detecting error where human error exists. Carelessness obtains in the use of terms which classify criticism. The student is enjoined to give heed to suitable definitions and to conform to the distinctions set forth. Dr. James...

Anthropology

Like Angelology, Anthropology is a major division of Systematic Theology and has had its due treatment in an earlier portion of this work (Vol. II). As a review of some salient features of the subject, certain truths may be restated. 1. As a Modern Science in secular education Anthropology is treated wholly apart from Biblical revelation, having in view only man's development and achievements. Whatever is said respecting man's origin is from an evolutionary point of view and nothing is included...

Grace

Grace a much misunderstood feature of God's ways with lost men is itself a revelation and all human hearts not having this truth of Scripture revealed will be unable to comprehend it or to adjust themselves to its provisions. Grace is not mercy or love. In Ephesians 2 4-5 these three doctrinal words appear severally and in their individual, specific manner But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with...

Cleansing

The possibility of the believer's cleansing from spiritual defilement and in a manner wholly satisfying to God is comforting and assuring beyond measure. Since sin is the experience of all in this world, a provision whereby defilement may be cleansed is of surpassing import to all. The doctrine of divine cleansing of human defilement is subject to a threefold division, namely 1. In the Old Testament. Various cleansings were prescribed and provided in the Old Testament order, but none of them...

Conviction

The original Greek word eAeyxw which may be translated either convict or convince used seventeen times in the New Testament represents in general the process whereby one is caused to reach certain conclusions or impressions in his mind. Too often it is assumed that this approach is through the emotions and that conviction consists in a spiritual depression and sorrow for sin. It is rather to be observed that the emotion which may arise in the heart is itself due to conviction, a convinced state...

Fatherhood of god

While it is not given to the finite mind fully to comprehend the infinite God, it may be observed that some knowledge of Him is available and to enter into it becomes a privilege and duty. He is revealed through nature as its Designer and Creator. God is revealed also through the Scriptures, which directly testify of Him, and through the Person of the Lord Jesus Christ, who came to reveal Him (John 1 18) and to introduce men to Him (Matt. 11 27). God is to be recognized both as Creator and...

Fall

A lapsarian is one who believes that man fell from his first estate of innocence by sinning. This position adheres to the record which the Bible presents. If men do not receive that record it is because they fear not to reject the testimony of God. When the natural man, who has no confidence in the Word of God, would attempt to account for the origin of things in the universe, as his reason impels him to do, he turns to the best solution of the problem that his imagination can devise, namely,...

Imputation

The word impute means to reckon over unto one's account, as the Apostle writing to Philemon regarding whatever Onesimus might owe Philemon declared Put that on mine account (1 18). Because of the various phases of doctrine involved, imputation becomes at once one of the major or fundamental doctrines of Christianity. On this account great care is enjoined, that the student may comprehend the teaching perfectly. There are three major imputations set forth in the Scriptures, as will be seen...

Evangelism

Evangelism and evangelists are peculiar to the New Testament. They belong to God's great plan for calling out the elect who are His heavenly people. Israel had her prophets who were patriots and reformers, but no one of their number undertook a ministry comparable to the New Testament evangelist. At the same time, there was no gospel message whatsoever sent from God to the Gentiles (cf. Eph. 2 12). 1. Definition. Evangelism is the act of presenting to the unsaved the evangel or good news of the...

Tribulation

The Greek for tribulation 0Ai i is used forty-two times in the New Testament. It has been translated by the words tribulation (21 times), affliction (17 times), anguish (1 time), burden (1 time), and trouble (3 times). There are two common meanings for the term (1) trial of any kind and (2) the (great) tribulation. The tribulation indeed is one of the major highways of prophecy, which may be traced through Scripture as follows Deuteronomy 4 29-30 Jeremiah 30 4-7 Daniel 12 1 Matthew 24 9-26 2...

Firstfruits

One of Israel's feasts appointed by Jehovah was the feast of first-fruits. The feast centered about the waving of a sheaf of first-fruits which was waved before Jehovah at the time of harvest. It was a representative sheaf and contemplated all the sheaves of the whole harvest, since unto Jehovah must thanks be given for the increase which sowing and reaping secured. The term first-fruits is used variously in the Bible and each one of several applications should be considered 1. Christ. Twice is...

Incarnation

Because of the immeasurable truths involved, the incarnation whereby a member of the Godhead is entering permanently into the human family and becoming part of it proves one of the seven greatest events in the history of the universe, as follows (1) creation of angels, (2) creation of material things including all life on the earth, (3) the incarnation, (4) death of the Incarnate One, (5) His resurrection, (6) His coming again to reign on the earth, and (7) His reign on the earth forever and...

Commandments

The term commandments is found in and represents an integral part of both the Mosaic and Christian systems, but with widely different significance. In fact, the variance between the two systems is clearly represented by these different uses of the word. Of the three major classifications of humanity commandments are addressed in the Scriptures to the Jew and the Christian, but not to the Gentile, or for that matter anyone unsaved either Jew or Gentile in this age, the reason being that divine...

God

As in any usual composition the personality of the author is taken for granted, so a knowledge of God is secured by induction of all passing intimations about the writer to be found in the Sacred Text which He wrote. Many efforts have been made to define God, but perhaps none more satisfactory than that of the Westminster Larger Catechism, which reads God is a Spirit, in and of himself infinite in being, glory, blessedness, and perfection all-sufficient, eternal, unchangeable, incomprehensible,...

Chastisement

Chastisement and scourging here to be distinguished from the larger theme of suffering because the Father's correction of His own offspring (Heb. 12 6) are in character far removed from condemnation. It is written that there is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus (Rom. 8 1) and he that believeth on him is not condemned (John 3 18), and of such as believe it is also said that he cometh not into judgment (John 5 24, R.V.). One who stands in the imputed merit of Christ,...

Gospel

The word euaYYe iov means 'good news' and was fully appreciated when all the news of the day had to be carried by couriers. To bear good news was a high honor. Four different messages of good news have been rightly identified and set forth by Dr. C. I. Scofield (1) The Gospel of the kingdom. This is the good news that God purposes to set up on the earth, in fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam. 7 16 ), a kingdom, political, spiritual, Israelitish, universal, over which God's Son, David's...

Repentance

Quite contrary to the impression which the usual theology has spread abroad is the correct definition of repentance, the usual idea being that it means sorrow or agony of heart respecting sin and wrongdoing. The true meaning of the word shows that it is a change of mind and although there may be nothing to preclude that change being accompanied by grief, yet the sorrow itself is not repentance. Instead, it is the Another serious Arminian error respecting this doctrine occurs when repentance is...

Tabernacle and temple

Moses' tabernacle presents the most exhaustive single item of Old Testament typology. Therefore, it figures largely in New Testament interpretation (cf. Heb. 9-10) with special reference to Christ and every feature of it important. Indeed it presents inexhaustible material for study as a type. 2. The Temple. a. No typology of the temple is expounded in the New Testament other than the following intimations or usage (1) Temple, or as some would translate sanctuary, is used of the...

Authority

Though recognizing God as supreme, the general theme of authority may be extended from that point on almost without end. All the material is subject to a twofold division, namely, (1) authority which is external to man, and (2) that which is internal. 1. External. This conception includes the authority of God, of the separate Persons of the Godhead, of angels, of human governments, of the apostles, of the Bible, and of the church. The subject matter in cludes every situation wherein one or more...

Ecclesiology

The term eKKA aia, translated church or assembly, means a calledout company. Its counterpart in the Old Testament is the congregation but Israel's congregation was never the true Church of the New Testament. Israel constituted nevertheless an assembly in the wilderness (Acts 7 38) as did the mob of Ephesus in the theater likewise (Acts 19 32, 41). The deeper spiritual use of the word church refers to a company of saved people who are by their salvation called out from the world into living,...

Calling

In its primary doctrinal meaning the word call suggests an invitation from God to men. This meaning is extended to form a ground upon which the ones invited are designated the called ones. The efficacious call of God is equivalent to His sovereign choice. Since there are two elect companies now in the world Israel and the Church these are alike seen as called of God. However, Israel's call is national while the call of those who comprise the Church is individual. The certainty of Israel's call...

Sanctification

It is particularly true that Bible doctrine suffers through misunderstanding and misstatement of the revealed facts about sanctification. Since one aspect of this doctrine deals with Christian living and experience, it is the more easily perverted and its exact statement the more imperative. 1. Essentials to a Right Understanding. Three general conditions govern a right conception of this subject. a. must be rightly related to other bible doctrines. Disproportionate emphasis on any one...

Judgment

Again, many theologians have erred greatly in contending that there is one judgment and in seeking to merge several other judgments into this particular one. For instance, they are convinced that the judgment of the nations (Matt. 25 31-46) is the same as the judgment of the great white throne (Rev. 20 11-15). One Christian young man when asked concerning the judgment of the nations precisely who the sheep were said in reply The saved people, of course. To the next question And who are the...

Baptism real

Early writers on the general theme of baptism distinguished between real baptism, which is wrought by the Holy Spirit, and ritual baptism, which is administered with water. These terms well serve to distinguish between the two forms of baptism which are so clearly identified in the New Testament. Great significance should be attached to the fact that the same term, PanriZ , is used in defining each of these baptisms, and it follows that any definition of this great New Testament word, if it is...

Death

Being, as it is, a penalty for sin, death in its varied forms is foreign to the original creation as it came from the hand of God. Being a penalty, such portion of it as may be removed will be dismissed forever other portions of it, being eternal, cannot be removed. The entire theme may be divided into three aspects of death the physical, the spiritual, and the second. Physical death is separation of soul and spirit from the body, spiritual death is the separation of soul and spirit from God,...

Love

Henry Drummond chose to term it, the greatest thing in the world (the title of his addresses on 1 Cor. 13). It is that which God is like to infinity. To realize the personal, unchanging love of God is a supreme experience. There is everywhere a very real human love but all Christian love, according to the Scriptures, is distinctly a manifestation of divine love operating through the human heart. A statement of the difference is found in Romans 5 5, because the love of God...

Resurrection

The Greek for resurrection is avdoraoiq, used forty-three times note also e avdoraaiq of Philippians 3 11, meaning a resurrection out from among the dead, e eyeipw (1 Cor. 6 14), and eyepoiq (Matt. 27 53). The doctrine is twofold, pertaining to (1) the resurrection of Christ and (2) the resurrection of humanity, including both saved and unsaved. a. the old testament doctrine. (1) This may be found in prophecy (Ps. 16 9-10 22 22-31 118 2224 David's conception can be seen in Acts 2 25-31). (2) It...

Redemption

The doctrine of redemption is set forth by the precise meaning of the original words (1) Autpow, Autpov, Aurpwoiq. This word root in all three forms is used eight times and only of the one who received redemption (cf. Luke 1 68 redeemed his people). (2) YopdZw, used thirty-one times, meaning to be in the 'agora' or place of assembly and market, hence to buy for one's self by a price freely paid (cf. Rev. 5 9 hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and...

Propitiation

The Greek words employed in the doctrine of propitiation are iAao oq, signifying that which Christ became for the sinner (1 John 2 2 4 10), iAaor piov, the place of propitiation (Rom. 3 25 Heb. 9 5), T'Aewq (Matt. 16 22 Heb. 8 12), and iAdaxo ai (Luke 18 13 Heb. 2 17). 'iAaaKo ai indicates that God has become gracious, reconciled. In profane Greek the word means to render propitious by prayer and sacrifice. But from the Biblical standpoint God is not of Himself alienated from man. His sentiment...

Genealogy

The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia presents an exhaustive listing of forty-one genealogies all of which, excepting two of Christ, are in the Old Testament. To the historian as well as to the theologian these genealogies contribute much, especially in tracing the line of the seed from Adam to Christ. In the wording of these genealogies a phrase like the son of should be interpreted according to the custom in force at the time that the genealogy was written. The Jews, for instance, in...

Advocacy

In its usual or general meaning an advocate is one who undertakes in the cause of another person. The original word used in the New Testament is napaxAntoq and its translation as in John 14 16, 26 15 26 16 7 comforter is unsatisfactory. It doubtless is the work of the Holy Spirit to lend comfort unto those to whom He ministers, but His work as Advocate in their behalf is much more extended, including all the work of the Spirit in and through the believer. In its Biblical or spiritual meaning,...

Dispersions of israel

In the light of her unchangeable covenants, one of which is possession of the land of promise (cf. Deut. 30 1-8), it is essential that Israel's dispossessions of the land be recognized. These dispossessions, then, involve regatherings also. There was clear prediction of three dispersions and three regatherings. Three dispersions have occurred as predicted, and two regatherings. Israel is now scattered in her third and final dispersion, awaiting more or less consciously the last regathering. One...

Eschatology

The doctrine of things to come is extensive indeed. It may be safe to estimate that as much lies ahead yet to be experienced as has transpired in the past. Biblical prophecy is virtually history prewritten. Apparently God delights to disclose that which He will do. To do so is an achievement which humanity can neither approach nor understand. In this competency God demonstrates the truth that He is superior to all others. The advantage to the human family of being informed respecting the future...

Hades

Like all otherwise unknown truths, the doctrine of a future state depends wholly on what is declared in the Sacred Text. It is usually asserted that the word Sheol of the Old Testament finds its equivalent in Hades, but Dr. E. W. Bullinger objects to such a conclusion in the following note This Gen. 37 35 being the first occurrence of the word Sheol, the R.V. gives a note in the margin, 'Heb. Sheol, the name of the abode of the dead, answering to the Greek Hades, Acts 2 27.' This note is...

Israel

An elect, sacred, and everlasting nation is the plan or purpose of God for Israel. This people came into being miraculously as the seed of Abraham through Isaac and Jacob. They are the object of immeasurable covenants and promises and this becomes their major identification or destination, for the covenants are secured or sealed by the act of Jehovah. Israel stands alone, in distinction from all other nations combined. Those many nations are known as Gentiles, but Israelites as Jews. Individual...

Angels

According to Colossians 1 16, creation included things invisible as well as things visible and angels are among the things that are invisible. They comprise a vast company of spirit beings concerning whom the Scriptures bear abundant testimony, but whose existence and ministrations have been strangely neglected in works on theology. Angels are mentioned about 108 times in the Old Testament. From the Greek word for angels, aYY oq, is derived the term used in English. In any case, the word means...

Jehovah

As an introduction to the name Jehovah one of the three primary Old Testament names for God and its import, two paragraphs from the article by Dr. T. Rees on God in the International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia may well be quoted Jehovah (Yahweh). This is the personal proper name par excellence of Israel's God, even as Chemosh was that of the god of Moab, and Dagon that of the god of the Philistines. The original meaning and derivation of the word are unknown. The variety of modern theories...

Suffering

The doctrine of suffering divides naturally into two sections, one for each Testament. In the Old Testament division appear two main points the sufferings of Christ as seen in type and prophecy and the sufferings of godly men as seen in the book of Job pre-eminently. The Book of Job, earliest of all the books of the Bible perhaps to be written, is devoted to the knotty problem of suffering. Any little child who has had the advantage of discipline can tell why bad people suffer, but to tell why...

Flesh

It has been generally recognized that the Christian is in unceasing conflict with three major foes, namely, the world, the flesh, and the devil. The combats with the world and the devil are waged from without, but the strife opposing the flesh operates from within. A more extended contemplation of the doctrine of flesh is presented in Volume VI. It may be restated, however, that the Greek word oap with its various forms appears in the New Testament under two general meanings. It, like its...

Conscience

As a native faculty of every human being, conscience is most difficult of understanding and has too often been wholly neglected in works on Anthropology and psychology. When Immanuel Kant presented what has come to be the time-honored threefold division of the immaterial part of man as intellect, sensibility, and will, he failed to include conscience, vital feature of human existence though it is. The subject at best is shrouded in mystery. Personality seems to express its full scope and...

Dispensations

Two words often used as synonyms when treating dispensationalism are nevertheless quite different in their specific meaning. These should be considered separately. 1. Age. (aiwv). This term, which is translated world thirty-one times in the Authorized Version of the New Testament, means a block or period of time. It hardly need be said that there is no observable relation between the English noun world and a period of time. By reason of this confusion in terms, the whole revelation respecting...

Interpretation

The doctrine of interpretation contemplates the science of discovering the exact meaning of the Spirit Author as this is set forth in a given Scripture passage. Such a science may be described theologically as hermeneutics. To fathom this doctrine it is necessary to know and follow the recognized rules of Scripture interpretation. In his classroom textbook on hermeneutics Dr. Rollin T. Chafer advances the following four major rules, to which less important rules may be added 1. The first rule...

Assurance

In the general signification of the doctrine, assurance is a confidence that right relations exist between one's self and God. In this respect it is not to be confused with the doctrine of eternal security. The latter is a fact due to God's faithfulness whether realized by the believer or not, while the former is that which one believes to be true respecting himself at a given time. Assurance may rest upon personal righteousness, which assurance was in the past age a recognition of one's own...

Government

Authority for human government dates from the flood when God expressly established it on the earth. This is well indicated, again, by Dr. C. I. Scofield The Third Dispensation Human Government. Under Conscience, as in Innocency, man utterly failed, and the judgment of the Flood marks the end of the second dispensation and the beginning of the third. The declaration of the Noahic Covenant subjects humanity to a new test. Its distinctive feature is the institution, for the first time, of human...

Election

Having recognized the sovereign right of God over His creation and having assigned to Him a rational purpose in all His plan, the truth contained in the doctrine of election follows in natural sequence as the necessary function of one who is divine. When there arises unbelief and resistance in the human mind against the tenet of divine election, it is engendered only because this larger conception of divine necessity has not been considered. It is hard, indeed, for men who have adopted the idea...

Prophecy

Prophecy is a distinct and unique feature of revelation wholly foreign to human ability. It amounts to history being prewritten, therefore must prove a great phenomenon. Its fulfillment in the past is unquestionable, standing as indisputable evidence for inspiration. 1. As Prediction. Predictive prophecy is to be distinguished from preaching or forthtelling, itself a kind of prophetic ministry. 2. Its Extent. Predictive prophecy occupies almost one quarter of the text of Scripture. It reaches...

Blasphemy

No sin of man is more obviously a repudiation of God and insult to His holy Person than that of blasphemy, which sin in its usual form consists of taking a name of Deity upon the lips in an empty, idle, and trifling manner. There is such a sin as that of addressing God Himself with blasphemy. In his coming day the beast, or man of sin, will assault God and His name Rev. 13 6 , and thus in the hour of God's judgments upon men they will blaspheme God and curse His name Rev. 16 9, 11, 21 ....

Elders

Since elders or bishops are the divinely ordered rulers in the local, visible church, the general doctrine of the local church as regards its government may rightfully be introduced under this heading. The term elder is common to both Testaments and in general contemplates those of maturity and authority. No mere novice was to be made an elder cf. 1 Tim. 3 6 . The first reference to elders in the Old Testament seems to take recognition of their advanced years. Old men by reason of their...

Demonology

In considering demons and the service which they render Satan, it is important to distinguish between demon possession or control and demon influence. In the one case the body is entered and a dominating control gained, while in the other case a warfare from without is carried on by suggestion, temptation, and influence. Investigation of the Scriptures in regard to demon possession reveals First, that this host is made up of bodiless spirits only. The following Scriptures verify such a...

Foreordination

The entire field of God's revealed purposes will be seen only when all the various approaches to His decree have been noted. This theme includes the doctrine of decrees, of election, of predestination, of foreordination or divine choice, of foreknowledge, of efficacious call, and of the free will of man. In its simplest form, the one phase of foreordination means ascribing to God the ability and sagacity to provide with infinite precision the things which form the ongoing of the universe He has...

Forgiveness

The correct understanding of the teaching of Scripture on forgiveness will go far in the direction of clarifying other doctrines of the Bible. Because of the fact that this theme is so constantly misunderstood, special attention should be given to it. Forgiveness on the part of one person toward another is the simplest of duties, whereas forgiveness on the part of God toward man proves the most complicated and costly of undertakings. As seen in the Bible, there is an analogy between forgiveness...

Atonement

Complexity arises in some minds respecting the use of the word atonement and this is due to certain facts. 1. In the Old Testament. So far as the English translation is concerned, the use of the term atonement excepting the mistranslation of Romans 5 11 is restricted to the Old Testament. Though there it is a translation of two Hebrew words, but one of them, kaphar, is generally in view and it is used about seventy times. Its meaning is 'to cover.' This, the distinct and limited meaning of the...

Carnality

Together with two other doctrines that of the natural man and that of the spiritual man the doctrine of the carnal man completes the threefold division of the human family in their relation to, or attitude toward, the Word of God. The designations in the original text are uxiko , which indicates the unchanged, unregenerate man nveu atiKoq, which designates the spiritual man or one who is characterized by the presence and manifest power of the Holy Spirit and oapKiKoq, which denotes the carnal...

Healing

Spiritual believers in all past generations have experienced divine favor, healing included. The claims of so-called divine healers, however, assume and imply that to secure such healing it is needful to go to them. At least seven errors are nevertheless to be found in their teaching, and these should be taken up separately. 1. Healers alone control God's healing of the body. But any company of spiritual believers, if asked to do so, would testify of divine curing far beyond the claims of...

Glory

Since glory is one of the greatest themes related to God and to heaven, it is important that its outreach should be understood so far as human minds may proceed to comprehend. It would be natural enough to conceive of glory as some supernal illumination with an appeal to the range of human vision, but it rather includes the ecstatic state of mind and physical enjoyment which belong to celestial realms. In the case of the boundless glory of God, it is said to be both essential or intrinsic and...

Infant salvation

Many and varied problems are discovered in a study of the doctrine of infant salvation. Like all salvation issues, the doctrines here involved must ever be correctly stated and harmonized election, Anthropology, the fall of the race, Soteriology, together with redemption. The entire field of sovereign grace toward a lost world is in view. No theology is established or complete which does not account for the salvation of those who die in infancy. This company is great numerically, and without...

Apostasy

Two words of quite different meaning are often confused, namely, apostasy and heresy. The former describes one who has first embraced some creed or doctrine and afterwards turned from it. Apostasy is well described as a total departure from one's faith or religion abandonment of creed and renunciation of religious obligations Standard Dictionary, 1913 edition . On the other hand, heresy refers to a belief which is held in variance with standards or accepted features of doctrine. The term...

Blood

In spite of the fact that circulation of the blood as the current through which all vitality moves and waste is eliminated was not established by science until 1615 a.d., the body's blood has in all human history been recognized, though it involved mystery, as the container of life and the symbol of relationships. The shedding of blood has always been accompanied by some degree of fear and daring. Bloodshed spells the taking of life. None who consider the Scriptures can doubt the truth that God...