like these same soldiers drawn up in battle array; see A. H. Strong, Philosopisy and Religion, 4, and Christ in Creation, 188. 189.

Candhish, art.: Dogmatic, in Encycl. Brit., 7:540 ? ?By and by a mighty intellectual force took held of the whole collected dogmatic material, and reared out of it the great scholastic systems, which have been compared to the grand Gothic cathedrals that wore the work of the same ages.? Thomas Aquinas 1221-1274), the Dominican, ?doctor angelicus,? Augustinian and Realist, ? and Duns Scotus (1265-1308), the Franciscan, ?doctor subtilis,? ? wrought out the scholastic theology more fully, and left behind them, in their Summa, gigantic monuments of intellectual industry and acumen. Scholasticism aimed at the proof and systematizing of the doctrines of the Church by means of Aristotle?s philosophy. It became at last an illimitable morass of useless subtleties and abstractions, and it finally ended in the nominalistic skepticism of William of Occam (1270-1347). See Townsend, The Great Schoolmen of the Middle Ages.

(b) The period of Symbolism, ? represented by the Lutheran theology of Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560), and the Reformed theology of John Calvin (1509-1564); the former connecting itself with the Analytic theology of Calixtus (1585-1656), and the latter with the Federal theology of Cocceius (1603-1669).

The Lutheran Theology . ? Preachers precede theologians, and Luther (1485-1546) was preacher rather than theologian. But Melanchthon (1497-1560), ?the preceptor of Germany,? as he was called, embodied the theology of the Lutheran church in his ?Loci Communes? = points of doctrine common to believers (first edition Augustinian, afterwards substantially Arminian; grew out of lectures on the Epistle to the Romans). He was followed by Chemnitz (1522-1586), ?clear and accurate,? the most learned of the disciples of Melanchthon. Leonhard Hutter (1563-1616), called ?Lutherus redivivus,? and John Gerhard (1582-1637) followed Luther rather than Melanchthson. ?Fifty years after the death of Melanchthon, Leonhard Hutter, his successor in the chair of theology at Wittenberg, on an occasion when the authority of Melanchthon was appealed to, tore down from the wall the portrait of the great Reformer, and trampled it under foot in the presence of the assemblage? (E. D. Morris, paper at the 60th Anniversary of Lane Seminary).. George Calixtus (1586-1656) followed Melanchthon rather than Luther. He taught a theology which recognized the good element in both the Reformed and the Romanist doctrine and which was called ?Syncretism.? He separated Ethics freno Systematic ?Theology, and

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