(b) it exalts the divine power at the expense of God?s truth, wisdom, holiness, love,

(c) it destroys all evidence of the personality and freedom of God and

(d) it practically makes necessity the only God and leaves the imperatives of our moral nature without present validity or future vindication.

The Mohammedans have frequently been called fatalists and the practical effect of the teachings of the Koran upon the masses is to make them so. The ordinary Mohammedan will have no physician or medicine because everything happens as God has before appointed. Smith, however, in his Mohammed and Mohammedanism, denies that fatalism is essential to the system. Islam = ?submission,? and the participle Moslem = ?submitted,?

i.e., to God. Turkish proverb: ?A man cannot escape what is written on his forehead.? The Mohammedan thinks of God?s dominant attribute as being greatness rather than righteousness, power rather than purity. God is the personification of arbitrary will and not the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. But there is in the system an absence of sacerdotalism, a jealousy for the honor of God, a brotherhood of believers, a reverence for what is considered the word of God and a bold and habitual devotion of its adherents to their faith.

Stanley, Life and Letters, 1:489, refers to the Mussulman tradition existing in Egypt that the fate of Islam requires that it should at last be superseded by Christianity. F. W. Sanders ?denies that the Koran is peculiarly sensual. The Christian and Jewish religions,? he says, ?have their paradise also. The Koran makes this the reward, but not the ideal, of conduct; ?Grace from thy Lord ? that is the grand bliss.? The emphasis of the Koran is upon right living. The Koran does not teach the propagation of religion by force. It declares that there shall be no compulsion in religion. The practice of converting by the sword is to be distinguished from the teaching of Mohammed, just as the Inquisition and the sin slave trade in Christendom do not prove that Jesus taught them. The Koran did not institute polygamy. It found unlimited polygamy, divorce and infanticide. The last it prohibited and the two former it restricted and ameliorated, just as Moses found polygamy but brought it within bounds. The Koran is not hostile to secular learning. Learning flourished under the Baghdad and Spanish Caliphates. When Moslems oppose learning, they do so without authority from the Koran. The Roman Catholic Church has opposed schools, but we do not attribute this to the gospel.? See Zwemer, Moslem Doctrine of God.

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