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applied the analytical method of investigation to the latter, beginning with the end, or final cause, of all things, viz.: blessedness. he was followed in his analytic method by Dannhauer (1603-1666), who treated theology allegorically, Calovius (1612-1686), ?the most uncompromising defender of Lutheran orthodoxy and the most drastic polemicist against Calixtus,? Quenstedt (1617-1688), whom Hovey calls ?learned, comprehensive and logical,? and Hollaz (1730). The Lutheran theology aimed to purify the existing church, maintaining that what is not against the gospel is for it. It emphasized the material principle of the Reformation, justification by faith; but it retained many Romanist customs not expressly forbidden in Scripture. Kaftan, Am. Jour. Theol., 1900:716 ? ?Because the medieval school philosophy mainly held sway, the Protestant theology representing the new faith was meanwhile necessarily accommodated to forms of knowledge thereby conditioned, that is, to forms essentially Catholic.?

The Reformed Theology . ? The word ?Reformed? is here used in its technical sense, as designating that phase of the new theology which originated in Switzerland. Zwingle, the Swiss reformer (1484-1531), differing from Luther as to the Lord?s Supper and as to Scripture, was more than Luther entitled to the name of systematic theologian. Certain writings of his may be considered the beginning of Reformed theology. But, it was left to John Calvin (1109-1564), after the death of Zwingle, to arrange the principles of that theology in systematic form. Calvin dug channels for Zwingle?s flood be flow in, as Melanchthon did for Luther?s. His Institutes (?Institutio Religionis Christian«?), is one of the great works in theology (superior as a systematic work to Melanchthon?s ?Loci?). Calvin was followed by Peter Martyr (1500-1562), Chamier (1565-1621), and Theodore Beza (1519-1605). Beza carried Calvin?s doctrine of predestination to an extreme supralapsarianism, which is hyper-Calvanistic rather that Calvinistic. Cocceius (1603-1669), and after him Witsius (1626-1708), made theology center about the idea of the covenants, and founded the Federal theology. Leydecker (1642-1721) treated theology in the order of the persons of the trinity. Amyraldus (1596-1664) and Placeus of Saumur (1596-1632) modified the Calvanistic doctrine, the latter by his theory of mediate imputation, and the former by advocating the hypothetic universalism of divine grace. Turretin (1671-1737), a clear and strong theologian whose work is still a textbook at Princeton, and Pictet (1655-1725), both of them Federalists, showed the influence of the Cartesian philosophy. The Reformed theology aimed to build a new church, affirming that what is not derived from the Bible is against it. It emphasized the formal principle of the Reformation, the sole authority of Scripture.

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