iniquity of us all.? <431011>John 10:11 ? ?the good shepherd layeth down his life for the sheep?; <450506>Romans 5:6-8 ? ?while we were yet weak, in due season Christ died for the ungodly. For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: for peradventure for the good man someone would even dare to die. But God commendeth his own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us?; <600318>1 Peter 3:18 ? ?Christ also suffered for sins once, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God.?

To these texts we must add all those mentioned under (b) above, in which Christ?s death is described as a ransom. Besides Meyer?s comment, there quoted, on <402028>Matthew 20:28 ? ?to give his life a ransom for many,? lu>tron ajnti< pollw~n ? Meyer also says: ? ajnti> denotes substitution. That which is given as a ransom takes the place of, is given instead of, those who are to be set free in consideration thereof. ? ajnti> can only be understood in the sense of substitution in the act of which the ransom is presented as an equivalent, to secure the deliverance of those on whose behalf the ransom is paid. This is a view, which is only confirmed by the fact that, in other parts of the N. T., this ransom is usually spoken of as an expiatory sacrifice. That which they [those for whom the ransom is paid] are redeemed from, is the eternal ajpw>leia in which, as having the wrath of God abiding upon them, they would remain imprisoned, as in a state of hopeless bondage, unless the guilt of their sins were expiated.?

Cremer, N. T. Lex., says that ?in both the N. T. texts, <401626>Matthew 16:26 and <410837>Mark 8:37, the word ajnta>llogma , like lu>tron , is akin to the conception of atonement: cf . <234303>Isaiah 43:3, 4; 51:11; <300512>Amos 5:12. This is a confirmation of the fact that satisfaction and substitution essentially belong to the idea of atonement.? Dorner, Glaubenslehre, 2:515 (Syst. Doct., 3:414 ? ? <402028>Matthew 20:28 contains the thought of a substitution. While the whole world is not of equal worth with the soul, and could not purchase it, Christ?s death and work are so valuable, that they can serve as a ransom.?

The sufferings of the righteous were recognized in Rabbinical Judaism as having a substitutive significance for the sins of others; see Weber, Altsynagog. Palestin. Theologie, 314; Schurer, Geschichte des judischen Volkes, 2:466 (translation, div. II, vol. 2:186). But Wendt, Teaching of Jesus, 2:225-262, says this idea of vicarious satisfaction was an addition of Paul to the teaching of Jesus. Wendt grants that both Paul and John taught substitution but he denies that Jesus did. He claims that ajnti> in

<402028> Matthew 20:28 means simply that Jesus gave his life as a means whereby he obtains the deliverance of many. But this interpretation is a

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