question: Did Isaiah write chapters 44-66? Isaiah?s name is mentioned only for the sake of reference. Chapters 44-66 set forth the exile and captivity as already having taken place. Israel is addressed as ready for deliverance. Cyrus is named as deliverer. There is no grammar of the future like Jeremiah?s. Cyrus is pointed out as proof that former prophecies of deliverance are at last coming to pass. He is not presented as a prediction, but as a proof that prediction is being fulfilled. The prophet could not have referred the heathen to Cyrus as proof that prophecy had been fulfilled, had he not been visible to them in all his weight of war. Babylon has still to fall before the exiles can go free. But chapters 40-66 speak of the coming of Cyrus as past, and of the fall of Babylon as yet to come. Why not use the prophetic perfect of both, if both were yet future? Local color, language and thought are all consistent with exilic authorship. All suits the exile, but all is foreign to the subjects and methods of Isaiah, for example, the use of the terms righteous and righteousness. Calvin admits exilic authorship (on <235503>Isaiah 55:3). The passage 56:9-57, however, is an exception and is pre-exilic. 40-48 are certainly by one hand, and may be dated 555-538. 2nd Isaiah is not a unity but consists of a number of pieces written before, during, and after the exile, to comfort the people of God.

(c) It is unjust to deny to inspired Scripture the right exercised by all historians of introducing certain documents and sayings as simply historical, while their complete truthfulness is neither vouched for nor denied.

An instance in point is the letter of Claudius Lysias in <442326>Acts 23:26-30 ? a letter which represents his conduct in a more favorable light than the facts would justify ? for he had not learned that Paul was a Roman when he rescued him in the temple ( <442131>Acts 21:31-33; 22:26-29). An incorrect statement may be correctly reported. A set of pamphlets printed in the time of the French Revolution might be made an appendix to some history of France without implying that the historian vouched for their truth. The sacred historians may similarly have been inspired to use only the material within their reach, leaving their readers by comparison with other Scriptures to judge of its truthfulness and value. This seems to have been the method adopted by the compiler of I and 2 Chronicles. The moral and religious lessons of the history are patent, even though there is inaccuracy in reporting some of the facts. So the assertions of the authors of the Psalm s cannot be taken for absolute truth. The authors were not sinless models for the Christian, ? only Christ is that. But the Psalm s present us with a record of the actual experience of believers in the past. It has its

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