There is an impossibility of deciding how many races there are, if we once allow that there is more than one. While Pickering would say eleven, Agassiz says eight, Morton twenty-two, and Burke sixty-five. Modern science all tends to the derivation of each family from a single germ. Other common characteristics of all races of men, in addition to those mentioned in the text are the duration of pregnancy, the normal temperature of the body, the mean frequency of the pulse, the liability to the same diseases. Meehan, State Botanist of Pennsylvania, maintains that hybrid vegetable products are no more sterile than are ordinary plants (Independent, Aug. 21, 1884).
E. B. Tylor, art.: Anthropology, in Encyclopedia Britannica: ?On the whole it may be asserted that the doctrine of the unity of mankind now stands on a firmer basis than in previous ages.? Darwin, Animals and Plants under Domestication, 1:39 ? ?From the resemblance in several countries of the half domesticated dogs to the wild species still living there, from the facility with which they can be crossed together, from even half tamed animals being so much valued by savages, and from the other circumstances previously remarked on which favor domestication, it is highly probable that the domestic dogs of the world have descended from two good species of wolf (viz., Canis lupus and Canis latrans), and from two or three other doubtful species of wolves (namely, the European, Indian and North American forms); from at least one or two South American canine species; from several races or species of the Jackal and perhaps from one or more extinct species.? Dr. E. M. Moore tried unsuccessfully to produce offspring by pairing a Newfoundland dog and a wolf-like dog from Canada. He only proved anew the repugnance of even slightly separated species toward one another.
B. Unity of species is presumptive evidence of unity of origin Oneness of origin furnishes the simplest explanation of specific uniformity, if indeed the very conception of species does not imply the repetition and reproduction of a primordial type-idea impressed at its creation upon an individual empowered to transmit this type-idea to its successors
Dana, quoted in Burgess, Antiq. and Unity of Race, 185, 186 ? ?In the ascending scale of animals, the number of species in any genus diminishes as we rise, and should by analogy be smallest at the head of the series. Among mammals, the higher genera have few species and the highest group next to man, the orang-outan, has only eight and these constitute but two genera. Analogy requires that man should have preeminence and should constitute only one.? 194 ? ?A species corresponds to a specific amount or condition of concentrated force defined in the act or law of
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