(a) The period of Scholasticism, ? introduced by Peter Lombard (11001600), and reaching its culmination in Thomas Aquinas (1221-1274) and Duns Scotus (1265-1308).
Though Systematic Theology had its beginning in the Eastern Church, its development has been confined almost wholly to the Western. Augustine (353-430) wrote his ?Encheiridion ad Laurentium? and his ?De CivtateDei,? and John Scotus Erigena (850), Roscelin (1092-1122), and Abelard (1079-1142), in their attempts at the rational explanation of the Christian doctrine foreshadowed the works of the great scholastic teachers. Anselm of Canterbury (1034-1109), with his ?Proslogion de Dei Existentia? and his ?Cur Deus Homo,? has sometimes, but wrongly, been called the founder of Scholasticism. Allen, in his Continuity of Christian Thought, represents the transcendence of God as the controlling principle of the augustinian and of the Western theology. The Eastern Church, he maintains, had founded its theology on God?s immanence. Paine, in his Evolution of Trinitarianism, shows that this erroneous. Augustine was a theistic monist. He declares that ?dei voluntas rerumnatura est,? and regards God?s upholding as a continuous creation. Western theology recognized the immanence of God as well as his transcendence.
Peter Lombard, however, (1100-1160), the ?magister sententiaurm,? was the first great systematizer of the Western Church, and his ?Libri Sententiaurm Quatuor? was the theological textbook of the Middle Ages. Teachers lectured on the ?Sentences? ( Sententi a = sentence, Satz, locus , point, article of faith), as they did on the books of Aristotle, who furnished to Scholasticism its impulse and guide. Every doctrine was treated in the order of Aristotle?s four causes: the material, the formal, the efficient, the final. (?Cause? here = requisite:
(1) matter of which a thing consists , e.g ., bricks and motar;
The organization of physical as well as of theological science was due to Aristofle. Danste called him ?the master of those who know.? James Ten Broeke, Bap. Quar. Rev., Jan. 1892; 1-26 ? ?The Revival of Learning showed the world that the real Aristotle was much broader than the Scholastic Aristotle ? information very unwelcome to the Roman Church.? For the influence of Scholasticism, compare the literary methods of Augustine and of Calvin, ? the former giving us his materials in disorder, like soldiers bivouacked for the night; the latter arranging them
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