(a) That infinity can belong to but one Being, and therefore cannot be snared with the universe. Infinity is not a negative but a positive idea. It does not take its rise from an impotence of thought, but is an intuitive conviction, which constitutes the basis of all other knowledge.
See Porter. Human Intellect, 651, 652, and this Compendium, pages 5962. Versus Mansel, Proleg. Logica, chap. 1 ? ?Such negative notions? imply at once an attempt to think, and a failure in that attempt.? On the contrary, the conception of the Infinite is perfectly distinguishable from that of the finite, and is both necessary and logically prior to that of the finite. This is not true of our idea of the universe, of which all we know is finite and dependent. We therefore regard such utterances as those of Lotze and Schurman above, and those of Chamberlin and Caird below, as pantheistic in tendency, although the belief of these writers in divine and human personality saves them from falling into other errors of pantheism.
Prof. T. C. Chamberlin, of the University of Chicago: ?it is not sufficient to the modern scientific thought to think of a Ruler outside of the universe, nor of a universe with the Ruler outside. A supreme Being who does not embrace all the activities and possibilities and potencies of the universe seems something less than the most supreme Being, and a universe with a Ruler outside seems something less than a universe. And therefore the thought is growing on the minds of scientific thinkers that the supreme Being is the universal Being, embracing and comprehending all things.?
Caird, Evolution of Religion, 2:62 ? ?Religion, if it would continue to exist, must combine the monotheistic idea with that which it has often regarded as its greatest enemy, the spirit of pantheism.? We grant in reply that religion must appropriate the element of truth in pantheism, namely, that God is the only substance, ground and principle of being, but we regard it as fatal to religion to side with pantheism in its denials of God?s transcendence and of God?s personality.
(b) That the infinity of God does not involve his identity with ?the all,? or the sum of existence, nor prevent the coexistence of derived and finite beings to which he bears relation. Infinity implies simply that God exists in no necessary relation to finite things or beings, and that whatever limitation of the divine nature results from their existence is, on the part of God, a self-limitation.
<19B305> Psalm 113:5, 6 ? ?that humbleth himself to behold the things that are in heaven and in the earth.? It is involved in God?s infinity that there
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