Ladd, Theory of Reality, 69 ? ?I know that I am, because, as the basis of all discriminations as to what I am, and as the core of all such self- knowledge, I immediately know myself as will .? So as to the non-ego, ?that things actually are is a factor in my knowledge of them which springs from the root of an experience with myself as a will, at once active and inhibited, as an agent and yet opposed by another.? The ego and the non-ego as well are fundamentally and essentially will. ?Matter must be, per se, Force. But this is? to be a Will? (439). We know nothing of the atom apart from its force (442). Ladd quotes from G. E. Bailey: ?The life principle, varying only in degree, is omnipresent. There is but one indivisible and absolute Omniscience and Intelligence, and this thrills through every atom of the whole Cosmos? (446). ?Science has only made the Substrate of material things more and more completely self-like? (449). Spirit is the true and essential Being of what is called Nature (472). ?The ultimate Being of the world is a self-conscious Mind and Will, which is the Ground of all objects made known in human experience? (550)

On classification of attributes, see Luthardt, Compendium, 71; Rothe, Dogmatik, 71; Kahnis, Dogmatik, 3:162; Thomasius, Christi Person und Werk, 1:47, 52, 136. On the general subject, see Charnock, Attributes; Bruce, Eigenschaftslehre.

V. ABSOLUTE OR IMMANENT ATTRIBUTES. First division. ? Spirituality, and attributes therein involved.

In calling spirituality an attribute of God, we mean, not that we are justified in applying to the divine nature the adjective ?spiritual,? but that the substantive ?Spirit? describes that nature ( <430424>John 4:24, margin ? ?God is spirit?; <450120>Romans 1:20 ? ?the invisible things of him?; <540117>1 Timothy 1:17 ? ?incorruptible, invisible?; <510115>Colossians 1:15 ? ?the invisible God?). This implies, negatively, that

(a) God is not matter. Spirit is not a refined form of matter but an immaterial substance, invisible, uncompounded, indestructible.

(b) God is not dependent upon matter. It cannot be shown that the human mind, in any other state than the present, is dependent for consciousness upon its connection with a physical organism.

Much less is it true that God is dependent upon the material universe as his sensorium. God is not only spirit, but he is pure spirit. He is not only not

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