knowledge, but a mode of it ? the knowing of things rationally.? Science asks; ?What do I know?? Philosophy asks; ?What can I know ?? William James, Psychology, 1:145 ? ?Metaphysics means nothing but an unusually obstinate effort to think clearly.? Aristotle: ?The particular sciences are toiling workmen, while philosophy is the architect. The workmen are slaves, existing for the free master. So philosophy rules the sciences.? With regard to philosophy and science Lord Bacon remarks: ?Those who have handled knowledge have been too much either men of mere observation or abstract reasoners. ?The former are like the ant: they only collect material and put it to immediate use. The abstract reasoners are like spiders, who make cobwebs out of their own substance. But the bee takes a middle course: it gathers its material from the flowers of the garden and the field, while it transforms and digests what it gathers by a power of its own. Not unlike this is the work of the philosopher? Novalis: ?Philosophy can bake no bread; but it can give us God, freedom and immortality.? Prof. DeWitt of Princeton; ?Science, philosophy, and theology are the three great modes of organizing the universe into an intellectual system. Science never goes below second causes; if it does, if it does it is no longer science, ? it becomes philosophy. Philosophy views the universe as a unity, and the goal it is always seeking to reach is the source and center of this unity ? the Absolute, the First Cause. This goal of philosophy is the point of departure for theology. What philosophy is striving to find, theology asserts has been found. Theology therefore starts with the Absolute, the First Cause.? W. N. Clarke, Christian Theology, 48 ? ?Science examines and classifies facts; philosophy inquires concerning spiritual meanings. Science seeks to know the universe; philosophy to understand it.?
Balfour, Foundations of Belief, 7 ? ?Natural science has for its subject matter things and events. Philosophy is the systematic exhibition of the grounds of our knowledge. Metaphysics is our knowledge respecting realities which are not phenomenal , e. g., God and the soul.? Knight, Wssays in Philosophy, 81 ? ?The aim of the sciences is increase of knowledge, by tthe discovery of laws within which all phenomena may be embraced and by means of which they may be explained. The aim of transcending them. Its sphere is substance and essence.? Bowne, Theory of Thought and Knowledge, 3-5 ? ?Philosophy = doctrine of knowledge (is mind passive or active in knowing? ? Epistemology) + doctrine of being (is fundamental being mechanical and unintelligent, or purposive and intelligent? ? Metaphysics). The systems of Locke, Hume, and Kant are preeminently theories of knowing; the systems of Spinoza and Leibnitz are preeminently theories of being. Historically theories of being come
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