Shedd, Dogm. Theol, 1:179-189, 276-283 ? ?It is one of the effects of conviction by the Holy Spirit to convert consciousness into self- consciousness? conviction of sin is the consciousness of self as the guilty author of sin. Self-consciousness is trinal, while mere consciousness is dual? one and the same human spirit subsists in two modes or distinctions ? subject and object. The three hypostatical consciousness in their combination and unity constitute the one consciousness of God? as the three persons make one essence.?

Dorner considers the internal relations of the Trinity (System, 1:412 sq .) in three aspects:

1. Physical. God is causa sui . But effect that equals cause must itself be causative. Here would be duality, were it not for a third principle of unity. Trinitas dualitatem ad unitatem reducit.

2. Logical. Self-consciousness sets self over against self, yet the thinker must not regard self as one of many, and call himself ?he,? as children do; for the thinker would then be, not self-conscious, but mente alienatus, beside himself.? He therefore ?comes to himself? in a third, as the brute cannot.

3. Ethical. God = self-willing right. But right based on arbitrary will is not right. Right based on passive nature is not right either. Right as being = Father. Right as willing = Son. Without the latter principle of freedom, we have a dead ethic, a dead God, an enthroned necessity. God finds the unity of necessity and freedom, as by the Christian, in the Holy Spirit. The Father = I; the Son = Me; the Spirit the unity of the two; see C. C. Everett, Essays, Theological and Literary, 32. There must be not only Sun and Sunlight but also an Eye to behold the Light. William James, in his Psychology, distinguishes the Me, the self as known, from the I, the self as knower.

But we need still further to distinguish a third principle, a subject-object, from both subject and Object. The subject cannot recognize the object as one with itself except through a unifying principle, which can be distinguished from both. We may therefore regard the Holy Spirit as the principle of self-consciousness in man as well as in God. As there was a natural union of Christ with humanity prior to his redeeming work, so there is a natural union of the Holy Spirit with all men prior to his regenerating work: <183213>Job 32:13 ? ?there is a spirit in man, And the breath of the Almighty giveth them understanding? Kuyper, Work of the Holy Spirit, teaches that the Holy Spirit constitutes the principle of life in all living things, and animates all rational beings, as well as regenerates

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