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biological view of selfhood regards it as a function, activity or a process, inseparable from the social matrix out of which it has arisen. Consciousness is simply the name for the functioning of an organism. Not that the soul is a secretion of the brain, as bile is a secretion of the liver; not that the mind is a function of the body in any such materialistic sense. But that mind or consciousness is only the growing of an organism, while, on the other hand, the organism is just that which grows. The psychical is not a second, subtle, parallel form of energy causally interactive with the physical much less is it a concomitant series, as the parallelists hold. Consciousness is not an order of existence or a thing but rather a function. It is the organization of reality, the universe coming to a focus, flowering, so to speak, in a finite center. Society is an organism in the same sense as the human body. The separation of the units of society is no greater than the separation of the unit factors of the body ? in the microscope the molecules are far apart. Society is a great sphere with many smaller spheres within it.

?Each self is not impervious to other selves. Selves are not watertight compartments each one of which might remain complete in itself even if all the others were destroyed. But there are open sluiceways between all the compartments. Society is a vast plexus of interweaving personalities. We are members one of another. What affects my neighbor affects me and what affects me ultimately affects my neighbor. The individual is not an impenetrable atomic unit. The self is simply the social whole coming to consciousness at some particular point. Every self is rooted in the social organism of which it is but a local and individual expression. A self is a mere cipher apart from its social relations. As the old Greek adage has it: ?He who lives quite alone is either a beast or a god.?? While we regard this exposition of Dr. Bawden as throwing light upon the origin of consciousness and so helping our contention against the Federal theory of sin, we do not regard it as proving that consciousness, once developed, may not become relatively independent and immortal. Back of society, as well as back of the individual, lies the consciousness and will of God, in whom alone is the guarantee of persistence. For objections to the Federal theory, see Fisher, Discussions, 401 sq.; Bibliotheca Sacra, 20:455-462, 577; New Englander, 1868:551-603; Baird, Elohim Revealed, 305-334, 435-450; Julius Muller, Doct. Sin, 2:336; Dabney, Theology, 341-351.

5. Theory of Mediate Imputation, or Theory of Condemnation for Depravity.

Placeus (1606-1655) first maintained this theory, professor of Theology at Saumur in France. Placeus originally denied that Adam?s sin was in any

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