The shadows, that have been shortening up into definiteness of outline, pass away and vanish utterly under the full meridian splendor of the Sun of Righteousness.? On <490107>Ephesians 1:7 ? ?the blood of Christ? as an expiatory sacrifice which secures our justification. See Salmond, in Expositor?s Greek Testament.

(b) The true import of the sacrifice, as is abundantly evident from both heathen and Jewish sources, embraced three elements. First, there was that of satisfaction to offended Deity, or propitiation offered to violated holiness. Secondly, there was that of substitution of suffering and death on the part of the innocent, for the deserved punishment of the guilty and thirdly, community of life between the offerer and the victim. Combining these three ideas, we have as the total import of the sacrifice: satisfaction by substitution, and substitution by incorporation. The bloody sacrifice among the heathen expressed the consciousness that sin involves guilt, that guilt exposes man to the righteous wrath of God, that without expiation of that guilt there is no forgiveness and that through the suffering of another who shares his life the sinner may expiate his sin.

Luthardt, Compendium der Dogmatik, 170, quotes from Nagelsbach, Nachhomerische, Theologie, 338 sq . ? ?The essence of punishment is retribution (Vergeltung) and retribution is a fundamental law of the world order. In retribution lies the atoning power of punishment. This consciousness that the nature of sin demands retribution. In other words, this certainty that there is in Deity a righteousness that punishes sin, taken in connection with the consciousness of personal transgression, awakens the longing for atonement.? This is expressed in the sacrifice of a slaughtered beast. The Greeks recognized representative expiation, not only in the sacrifice of beasts, but in human sacrifices. See examples in Tyler, Theol. Gk. Poets, 196, 197, 245-253; see also Virgil, ^neid, 5:815 ? ?Unum pro multis dabitur caput?; Ovid, Fasti, vi ? ?Cor pro corde, precor; pro fibris sumite fibras. Hanc animam vobis pro meliore damus.?

Stahl, Christliche Philosophic, 146 ? ?Every non-perverted conscience declares the eternal law of righteousness that punishment shall follow inevitably on sin. In the moral realm, there is another way of satisfying righteousness ? that of atonement. This differs from punishment in its effect, that is, reconciliation, which is the moral authority asserting itself, not by the destruction of the offender, but by taking him up into itself and uniting itself to him. But the offender cannot offer his own sacrifice, that must be done by the priest.? In the Prometheus Bound, of ^schylus, Hermes says to Prometheus: ?Hope not for an end to such oppression,

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