(b) <199002>Psalm 90:2 ? ?Before the mountains were brought forth, Or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, Even from everlasting to everlasting thou art God?; <200823>Proverbs 8:23 ? ?I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Before the earth was?; <430101>John 1:1 ? ?In the beginning was the Word?; <510117>Colossians 1:17 ? ?he is before all things?; <580914> Hebrews 9:14 ? ?the eternal Spirit? (see Tholuck, Com. in loco ).

<490309> Ephesians 3:9 ? ?God who created all things?; <451136>Romans 11:36 ? ?of him? are all things?; <460806>1 Corinthians 8:6 ? ?one God, the Father, of whom are all things? one Lord, Jesus Christ through whom are all things?; John 3 ? ?all things were made through him?; <510116>Colossians 1:16 ? ?in him were all things created? all things have been created through him, and unto him?; <580102>Hebrews 1:2 ? ?through whom also he made the worlds?;

<010102> Genesis 1:2? ?and the Spirit of God moved [margin ?was brooding?] upon the face of the waters.? From these passages we may also infer that

(1) all things are absolutely dependent upon God,

(2) God exercises supreme control over all things.

(3) God is the only infinite Being,

(4) God alone is eternal,

(5) there is no substance out of which God creates and

(6) things do not proceed from God by necessary emanation; the universe has its source and originator in God?s transcendent and personal will. See, on tills indirect proof of creation, Philippi, Glaubenslehre, 2:231. Since other views, however, have been held to be more rational, we proceed to the examination of


Of dualism there are two forms

A. That which holds to two self-existent principles, God and matter. These are distinct from and co-eternal with each other. Matter, however, is an unconscious, negative, and imperfect substance, which is subordinate to God and is made the instrument of his will. This was the underlying principle of the Alexandrian Gnostics. It was essentially an attempt to combine with Christianity the Platonic or Aristotelian conception of the u[lh . In this way it was thought to account for the existence of evil, and to (c)

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