rank of bishop do not support that claim. Plumptre, in Pop. Com., Pauline Epistles, 555, 556 ? ?There cannot be a shadow of doubt that the two titles of Bishop and Presbyter were in the Apostolic Age interchangeable.?
(b) The only plausible objection to the identity of the presbyter and the bishop is that first suggested by Calvin, on the ground of <540517>1 Timothy 5:17. But this text only shows that the one office of presbyter or bishop involved two kinds of labor and that certain presbyters or bishops were more successful in one kind than in the other. That gifts of teaching and ruling belonged to the same individual, is clear from <442028>Acts 20:28-31; Ephesians4:11; <581307>Hebrews 13:7; <540302>1 Timothy 3:2 ? ejpiskopon didaktiko>n .
<540517> 1 Timothy 5:17 ? ?Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and in teaching.? Wilson, Primitive Government of Christian Churches, concedes that this last text ?expresses a diversity in the exercise of the Presbyterial office but not in the office itself? and, although he was a Presbyterian, he very consistently refused to have any ruling elders in his church.
<442028> Acts 20:28, 31 ? ?bishops, to feed the church of the Lord...wherefore watch ye?; <490411>Ephesians 4:11 ? ?and some, pastors and teachers? ? here Meyer remarks that the single article binds the two words together and prevents us from supposing that separate offices are intended. Jerome: ?Nemo...pastoris sibi nomen assumere debet, nisi possit docere quos pascit.? <581307>Hebrews 13:7 ? ?Remember them that had the rule over you, men that spake unto you the word of God?; <540302>1 Timothy 3:2 ? ?The bishop must be...apt to teach.? The great temptation to ambition in the Christian ministry is provided against, by having no gradation of ranks. The pastor is a priest only as every Christian is. See Jacob, Ecclesiastical Polity of N. T., 56; Olshausen, on <540517>1 Timothy 5:17; Hackett on <441423> Acts 14:23; Presb. Rev., 1886:89-126.
Dexter, Congregationalism. 52 ? ?Calvin was a natural aristocrat, not a man of the people like Luther. Taken out of his own family to be educated in a family of the nobility, he received an early bent toward exclusiveness. He believed in authority and loved to exercise it. He could easily have been a despot. He assumed all citizens to be Christians until proof to the contrary. He resolved church discipline into police control. He confessed that the elder-ship was an expedient to which he was driven by circumstances, though after creating it he naturally enough endeavored to procure Scriptural proof in its favor.? On the question, The Christian
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