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how indignantly would he have inveighed against it but instead of this he received from John the Baptist, without rebuke, the words: ?Behold, the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world? ( <430129>John 1:29).?

A. Hodge, Popular Lectures, 247 ? ?The sacrifices of bulls and goats were like token-money, as our paper-promises to pay, accepted at their face value till the day of settlement. But the sacrifice of Christ was the gold, which absolutely extinguished all debt by its intrinsic value. Hence, when Christ died, the veil that separated man from God was rent from the top to the bottom by supernatural hands. When the real expiation was finished, the whole symbolical system representing it became functum officio and was abolished. Soon after this, the temple was razed to the ground, and the ritual was rendered forever impossible.?

For denial that Christ?s death is to be interpreted by heathen or Jewish sacrifices, see Maurice on Sac., 154 ? ?The heathen signification of words, when applied to a Christian use, must be not merely modified, but inverted?; Jowett, Epistles of St. Paul, 2:479 ? ?The heathen and Jewish sacrifices rather show us what the sacrifice of Christ was not than what it was.? Bushnell and Young do not doubt the expiatory nature of heathen sacrifices. But the main terms which the N. T. uses to describe Christ?s sacrifice are borrowed from the Greek sacrificial ritual, e.g ., qusi>a prosfora> iJlasmo>v aJgia>zw kaqai>rw , iJla>skomai . To deny that these terms, when applied to Christ, imply expiation and substitution, is to deny the inspiration of those who used them. See Cave, Scripture Doctrine of Sacrifice; art, on Sacrifice, in Smith?s Bible Dictionary.

With all these indications of our dissent from the modern denial of expiatory sacrifice, we deem it desirable by way of contrast to present the clearest possible statement of the view from which we dissent. This may be found in Pfleiderer, Philosophy of Religion, 1:238 , 260, 261 ? ?The gradual distinction of the moral from the ceremonial, the repression and ultimate replacement of ceremonial expiation by the moral purification of the sense and life and consequently the transformation of the mystical conception of redemption into the corresponding ethical conception of education, may be designated as the kernel and the teleological principle of the development of the history of religion. But to Paul, the question in what sense the death of the Cross could be the means of the Messianic redemption found its answer simply from the presuppositions of the Pharisaic theology, which beheld in the innocent suffering and especially in the martyr-death of the righteous, an expiatory means compensating for the sins of the whole people. What would be more natural than that Paul

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