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translated ?man,? either means ?a man,? or ?man,? s . e., generic man. ?Israel had as little regard to their covenants with God as men of unprincipled character have for ordinary contracts.? ?Like a man? = as men do. Compare <198207>Psalm 82:7 ? ?ye shall die like men?; <280801>Hosea 8:1, 2 ? ?they have transgressed my covenant? ? an allusion to the Abrahamic or Mosaic covenant. <580809>Hebrews 8:9 ? ?Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers In the day that I took them by the hand to lead them forth out of the land of Egypt.?

B. It contradicts Scripture, in making the first result of Adam?s sin to be God?s regarding and treating the race as sinners. The Scripture, on the contrary, declares that Adam?s offense constituted us sinners ( <450519>Romans 5:19). We are not sinners simply because God regards and treats us as such, but God regards us as sinners because we are sinners. Death is said to have ?passed unto all men,? not because all were regarded and treated as sinners, but ?because all sinned? ( <450512>Romans 5:12).

For a full exegesis of the passage <450512>Romans 5:12-19, see note to the discussion of the Theory of Adam?s Natural Headship, pages 625-627. Dr. Park gave great offense by saying that the so called ?covenants? of law and of grace referred in the Westminster Confession as made by God with Adam and Christ respectively, were really ?made in Holland.? The word fudus, in such a connection, could properly mean nothing more than ?ordinance?; see Vergil, Georgics, 1:60-63 ? ?eterna fudera.? E. G. Robinson, Christ Theol., 185 ? ?God?s ?covenant with men is simply his method of dealing with them according to their knowledge and opportunities.?

C. It impugns the justice of God by implying:

(a) That God holds men responsible for the violation of a covenant which they had no part in establishing. The assumed covenant is only a sovereign decree; the assumed justice is only arbitrary will.

We not only never authorized Adam to make such a covenant but there is no evidence that he ever made one at all. It is not even certain that Adam knew he should have posterity. In the case of the imputation of our sins to Christ, Christ covenanted voluntarily to bear them and joined himself to our nature that he might bear them. In the case of the imputation of Christ?s righteousness to us, we first become one with Christ and upon the ground of our union with him are justified. But upon the Federal theory,

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