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appended to his Com. on Philippians, on the influence of the ethical language of Stoicism on the NT writers. Martineau, Seat of Authority, 39 ? ?The difference between man and his companion creatures on this earth is not that his instinctive life is less than theirs, for in truth it goes far beyond them. In him it acts in the presence and under the eye of other powers, which transform it and by giving to it vision as well as light takes its blindness away. He is let into his own secrets.?

We conclude that the immaterial part of man, viewed as an individual and conscious life, capable of possessing and animating a physical organism, is called yuch> . Viewed as a rational and moral agent, susceptible of divine influence and indwelling, this same immaterial part is called pneu~ma The pneu~ma , then, is man?s nature looking God-ward, and capable of receiving and manifesting the Pneu~ma a[gion ; the yuch> is man?s nature looking earthward and touching the world of sense. The pneu~ma is man?s higher part as related to spiritual realities or as capable of such relation; the yuch> is man?s higher part, as related to the body, or as capable of such relation. Man?s being is therefore not trichotomous but dichotomous, and his immaterial part, while possessing duality of powers, has unity of substance.

Man?s nature is not a three-storied house, but a two-storied house, with windows in the upper story looking in two directions ? toward earth and toward heaven. The lower story is the physical part of us, or the body. But man?s ?upper story? has two aspects because there is an outlook toward things below, and a skylight through which to see the stars. ?Soul? says Hovey, ?is spirit as modified by union with the body.? Is man then the same in kind with the brute but different in degree? No, man is different in kind though possessed of certain powers, which the brute has. The frog is not a magnified sensitive plant, though his nerves automatically respond to irritation. The animal is different in kind from the vegetable, though he has some of the same powers, which the vegetable has. God?s powers include man?s but man is not of the same substance with God, nor could man be enlarged or developed into God. So man?s powers include those of the brute, but the brute is not of the same substance with man, nor could he be enlarged or developed into man.

Potter, Human Intellect, 39 ? ?The spirit of man, in addition to its higher endowments, may also possess the lower powers which vitalize dead matter into a human body.? It does not follow that the soul of the animal or plant is capable of man?s higher functions or developments or that the subjection of man?s spirit to body, in the present life, disproves his immortality. Porter continues: ?That the soul begins to exist as a vital

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