Gnostics, who ascribed creation, not to the Logos, but to successive ?^ons.? How did the Gnostics, without ?peep or mutter,? come to accept as genuine what had only in their own time been first sprung upon the churches? While Basilides (130) and Valentinus (150), the Gnostics, both quote from the fourth gospel, they do not dispute its genuineness or suggest that it was of recent origin. Bruce, in his Apologetics, says of Baur ?He believed in the all sufficiency of The Hegelian theory of development through antagonism. He saw tendency everywhere. Anything additional, putting more contents into the person and teaching of Jesus than suits the initial stage of development, must be reckoned spurious. If we find Jesus in any of the gospels claiming to be a supernatural being, such texts can with the utmost confidence be set aside as spurious, for such a thought could not belong to the initial stage of Christianity.? But such a conception certainly existed in the second century, and it directly antagonized the speculations of the Gnostics. F.V. Farrar, on <580102>Hebrews 1:2 ? ?The word uon was used by the later Gnostics to describe he various emanations by which they tried at once to widen and to bridge over the gulf between the human and the divine. Over that imaginary chasm John threw the arch of the Incarnation, when he wrote: ?The Word became flesh? <430114>John 1:14).? A document which so contradicted the Gnostic teachings could not in the second century have been noted by the Gnostics themselves without dispute as to its genuineness, if it had not been long recognized in the churches as a work of the apostle John.

(f) The acknowledgment by Baur that the epistles to the Romans, Galatians and Corinthians were written by Paul in the first century is fatal to his theory, since these epistles testify not only to miracles at the period at which they were written, but to the main events of Jesus? life and to the miracle of his resurrection, as facts already long acknowledged in the Christian church.

Baur, Paulus der Apostel, 276 ? ?There never has been the slightest suspicion of authenticity cast on these epistles (Galatians 1 and 2, Corinthians, Romans), and they bear so incontestably the character of Pauline originality, that there is no conceivable ground for the assertion of critical doubts in their case.? Baur, in discussing the appearance of Christ to Paul on the way to Damascus, explains the outward from the inward: Paul translated in tense and sudden conviction of the truth of the Christian religion into an outward scene. But this cannot explain the hearing of the outward sound by Paul?s companions. On the evidential value of the epistles here mentioned, see Lorimer, in Strivings for the Faith, 109-144; Howson, in Present Day Tracts, 4: no. 24; Row, Bampton Lectures for

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