B. It permits whatever of truth there may be in the Federal theory and in the theory of Mediate Imputation to be combined with it, while neither of these latter theories can be justified to reason unless they are regarded as corollaries or accessories of the truth of Adam?s Natural Headship. Only on this supposition of Natural Headship could God justly constitute Adam our representative or hold us responsible for the depraved nature we have received from him. It moreover justifies God?s ways, in postulating a real and a fair probation of our common nature as preliminary to imputation of sin. It is a truth, which the theories just mentioned, in common with that of the New School, virtually deny even though it rests upon correct philosophical principles with regard to will, ability, law. It accepts the Scriptural representations of the nature of sin, the penal character of death, the origin of the soul and the oneness of the race in the transgression.

John Caird, Fund. Ideas of Christianity, 1:196-232, favors the view that sin consists simply in an inherited bias of our nature to evil and that we are guilty from birth because we are sinful from birth. But he recognizes in Augustinianism the truth of the organic unity of the race and the implication of every member in its past history. He tells us that we must not regard man simply as an abstract or isolated individual. The atomistic theory regards society as having no existence other than that of the individuals who compose it. But it is nearer the truth to say that it is society, which creates the individual, rather than that the individual creates society. Man does not come into existence a blank tablet on which external agencies may write whatever record they will. The individual is steeped in influences, which are due to the past history of his kind.

The individualistic theory runs counter to the most obvious facts of observation and experience. As a philosophy of life, Augustinianism has a depth and significance, which the individualistic theory cannot claim.

Alvah Hovey, Manual of Christian Theology, 175 (2d ed.) ? ?Every child of Adam is accountable for the degree of sympathy which he has for the whole system of evil in the world and with the primal act of disobedience among men. If that sympathy is full, whether expressed by deed or thought, if the whole force of his being is arrayed against heaven and on the side of hell, it is difficult to limit his responsibility.? Schleiermacher held that the guilt of original sin attached, not to the individual as an individual, but as a member of the race, so that the consciousness of race-union carried with it the consciousness of race-guilt. He held all men to be equally sinful and to differ only in their different reception of or attitude toward grace, sin being the universal

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