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of his deity. On the works of Christ, see Liddon, Our Lord?s Divinity, 153; per contra , see Examination of Liddon?s Bampton Lectures, 72.

Statements of Christ?s creative and of his upholding activity are combined in <430103>John 1:3, 4 ? Pa>nta di aujtou~ ejge>neto kai< cwri<v aujtou~ ejge>neto oujde< e]n. o[ ge>gonen ejn aujtw~| zwh< h[n ? ? All things were made through him; and without him was not anything made. That which hath been made was life in him? (margin). Westcott: ?It would be difficult to find a more complete consent of ancient authorities in favor of any reading than that which supports this punctuation.? Westcott therefore adopts it. The passage shows that the universe 1. Exists within the bounds of Christ?s being; 2. Is not dead, but living; 3. Derives its life from him; see Inge, Christian Mysticism, 46. Creation requires the divine presence, as well as the divine agency. God creates through Christ. All things were made, not ujpo< aujtou~ ?by him,? but di aujtou~ ? ?through him.? Christian believers ?Behind creation?s throbbing screen Catch movements of the great Unseen.?

Van Oosterzee, Christian Dogmatics, lv, lvi ? ?That which many a philosopher dimly conjectured, namely, that God did not produce the world in an absolute, immediate manner, but in some way or other, mediately, here presents itself to us with the luster of revelation, and exalts so much the more the claim of the Son of God to out deep and reverential homage.? Would that such scientific men as Tyndall and Huxley might see Christ in nature, and, doing his will might learn of the doctrine and be led to the Father! The humblest Christian who sees Christ?s hand in the physical universe and in human history knows more of the secret of the universe than all the mere scientists put together.

<510117> Colossians 1:17 ? ?In him all things consist,? or ?hold together,? means nothing less than that Christ is the principle of cohesion in the universe, making it a cosmos instead of a chaos. Tyndall said that the attraction of the sun upon the earth was as inconceivable as if a horse should draw a cart without traces. Sir Isaac Newton: ?Gravitation must be caused by an agent acting constantly according to certain laws.? Lightfoot: ?Gravitation is an expression of the mind of Christ.? Evolution also is a method of his operation. The laws of nature are the habits of Christ, and nature itself is but his steady and constant will. He binds together man and nature in one organic whole, so that we can speak of a ?universe.? Without him there would be no intellectual bond, no uniformity of law, no unity of truth. He is the principle of induction that enables us to argue from one thing to another. The medium of interaction between things is also the medium of intercommunication between minds.

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