from?; Aristotle: ?We should behave toward our friends as we should wish them to behave toward us?; Tobit, 4:15 ? ?What thou hatest, do to no one?; Philo: ?What one hates to endure, let him not do?; Seneca bids us ?give as we wish to receive?: Rabbi Hillel: ?Whatsoever is hateful to you, do not to another; this is the whole law, and all the rest is explanation.?

Broadus, in Am. Com. on Matthew, 161 ? ?The sayings of Confucius, Isocrates, and the three Jewish teachers, are merely negative; that of Seneca is confined to giving, and that of Aristotle to the treatment of friends. Christ lays down a rule for positive action, and that toward all men.? He teaches that I am bound to do to others all that they could rightly desire me to do to them. The golden rule therefore requires a supplement, to show what others can rightly desire, namely, God?s glory first, and their good as second and incidental thereto. Christianity furnishes this divine and perfect standard; Confucianism is defective in that it has no standard higher than human convention. While Confucianism excludes polytheism, idolatry, and deification of vice, it is a shallow and tantalizing system, because it does not recognize the hereditary corruption of human nature, or furnish any remedy for moral evil except the ?doctrines of the sages.? ?The heart of man,? it says, ?is naturally perfectly upright and correct.? Sin is simply ?a disease, to be cured by self discipline; a debt, to be canceled by meritorious acts; an ignorance, to be removed by study and contemplation.? See Bibliotheca Sacra, 1883:292, 293; N . Englander, 1883:565; Marcus Dods, in Erasmus and other Essays, 239.

2. T HE I NDIAN S YSTEMS . Brahmanism, as expressed in the Vedas, dates back to 1000-1500 BC As Caird (in Faiths of the World, St. Giles Lectures, lecture 1) has shown, it originated in the contemplation of the power in nature apart from the moral Personality that works in and through nature. Indeed we may say that all heathenism is man?s choice of a non-moral in place of a moral God. Brahmanism is a system of pantheism, ?a false or illegitimate consecration of the finite.? All things are a manifestation of Brahma. Hence evil is deified as well as good. And many thousand gods are worshiped as partial representations of the living principle, which moves through all. ?How many gods have the Hindus?? asked Dr. Duff of his class. Henry Drummond thought there were about twenty-five. ?Twenty five?? responded the indignant professor; ?twenty five millions of millions!? While the early Vedas present a comparatively pure nature-worship, later Brahmanism becomes a worship of the vicious and the vile, of the unnatural and the cruel. Juggernaut and the suttee did not belong to original Hindu religion.

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