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be constituted righteous.? The many were constituted sinners because, according to verse 12, they sinned in and with Adam in his fall. The verb presupposes the fact of natural union between those to whom it relates. All men are declared to be sinners on the basis of that ?one trespass.? When that one trespass was committed, all men were in one man; there was one common nature in the first human pair. Sin is imputed because it is committed. All men are punished with death, because they literally sinned in Adam and not because they are metaphorically reputed to have done so but in fact did not. Oi polloi> is used in contrast with the one forefather and the atonement of Christ is designated as uJpakoh> in order to contrast it with the parakoh> of Adam.

Katastaqh>sontai has the same signification as in the first part of the verse. Di>kaioi katastaqh>sontai means simply ?shall be justified,? and is used instead of dikaiwqh>sontai in order to make the antithesis of aJmartwloi< katesta>qhsan more perfect. This being ?constituted righteous? presupposes the fact of a union between oJ ei=v and oiJ polli> , i . e., between Christ and believers, just as the being ?constituted sinners? presupposed the fact of a union between oJ ei=v and oiJ polli> , i.e., between all men and Adam. The future katastaqh>sontai refers to the succession of believers; the justification of all was, ideally, complete already, but actually, it would await the times of individual believing. ?The. any? who shall be ?constituted righteous? = not all mankind but only ?the many? to whom, in verse 15, grace abounded and who are described in verse 17 as ?they that receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness.?

?But this union differs in several important particulars from that between Adam and his posterity. It is not natural and substantial, but moral and spiritual; not generic and universal but individual and by election; not caused by the creative act of God, but by his regenerating act. All men, without exception, are one with Adam and only believing men are one with Christ. The imputation of Adam?s sin is not an arbitrary act in the sense that, if God so pleased, he could reckon it to the account of any beings in the universe by volition. The sin of Adam could not be imputed to the fallen angels, for example, and punished in them because they never were one with Adam by unity of substance and nature. The fact that they have committed actual transgression of their own will not justify the imputation of Adam?s sin to them. The fact that the posterity of Adam has committed actual transgressions of their own would be a sufficient reason for imputing the first sin of Adam to them. Nothing but a real union of nature and being can justify the imputation of Adam?s sin and, similarly,

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