creation. The species in any particular ease began its existence when the first germ cell or individual was created. When individuals multiply from generation to generation, it is but a repetition of the primordial type-idea. The specific is based on a numerical unity, the species being nothing else than an enlargement of the individual.? For full statement of Dana?s view, see Bibliotheca Sacra, Oct. 1857:862-866. On the idea of species, see also Shedd, Dogmatic Theology, 2:63-74.

(a) To this view is opposed the theory, propounded by Agassiz, of different centers of creation, and of different types of humanity corresponding to the varying fauna and flora of each. But this theory makes the plural origin of man an exception in creation. Science points rather to a single origin of each species, whether vegetable or animal. If man be, as this theory grants, a single species, he should be, by the same rule, restricted to one continent in his origin. This theory, moreover, applies an unproved hypothesis with regard to the distribution of organized beings in general to the very being whose whole nature and history show conclusively that he is an exception to such a general rule, if one exists. Since man can adapt himself to all climes and conditions, the theory of separate centers of creation is, in his case, gratuitous and unnecessary.

Agassiz?s view was first published in an essay on the Provinces of the Animal World in Nott and Gliddon?s Types of Mankind, a book gotten up in the interest of slavery. Agassiz held to eight distinct centers of creation, and to eight corresponding types of humanity ? the Arctic, the Mongolian, the European, the American, the Negro, the Hottentot, the Malay, and the Australian. Agassiz regarded Adam as the ancestor only of the white race, yet like Peyrerius and Winchell are held that man in all his various races constitutes but one species.

The whole tendency of recent science, however, has been adverse to the doctrine of separate centers of creation, even in the case of animal and vegetable life. In temperate North America there are two hundred and seven species of quadrupeds, of which only eight, and these polar animals are found in the north of Europe or Asia. If North America be an instance of a separate center of creation for its peculiar species, why should God create the same species of man in eight different localities? This would make man an exception in creation. There is, moreover, no need of creating man in many separate localities; for, unlike the polar bears and the Norwegian firs, which cannot live at the equator, man can adapt himself to the most varied climates and conditions. For replies to Agassiz, see Bibliotheca Sacra, 19:607-632; Princeton Rev., 1862:435-464.

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