Evolution, according to Herbert Spencer, is ?an integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion, during which the matter passes from an indefinite incoherent homogeneity to a definite coherent heterogeneity, and during which the retained motion goes through a parallel transformation.? D. W. Simon criticizes this definition as defective ?because (1) it omits all mention both of energy and its differentiation and
(2) because it introduces into the definition of the process one of the phenomena thereof, namely, motion. As a matter of fact, both, energy or force and law are subsequently and illicitly introduced as distinct factors of the process; they ought therefore to have found recognition in the definition or description.? Mark Hopkins, Life, 189 ? ?God: what need of him? Have we not force, uniform force, and do not all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation, if it ever had a beginning? Have we not the to< pa~n , the universal All, the Soul of the universe, working itself up from unconsciousness through molecules and maggots and mice and marmots and monkeys to its highest culmination in man??
(b) Development is recognized. The Mosaic account represents the present order of things as the result, not simply of original creation, but also of subsequent arrangement and development. A fashioning of inorganic materials is described, and also a use of these materials in providing the conditions of organized existence. Life is described as reproducing itself, after its first introduction, according to its own laws and by virtue of its own inner energy.
Martensen wrongly asserts that ?Judaism represented the world exclusively as creatura , not natura; as kti>siv , not fu>siv .? This is not true. Creation is represented as the bringing forth, not of something dead, but of something living and capable of self-development. Creation lays the foundation for cosmogony. Not only is there a fashioning and arrangement of the material which the original creative act has brought into being (see
<010102> Genesis 1:2, 4, 6, 7, 9,16, 17; 2:2, 6, 7, 8 ? ?Spirit brooding; dividing light from darkness, and waters from waters; dry land appearing; setting apart of sun, moon, and stars; mist watering; forming man?s body; planting garden) but there is also an imparting and using of the productive powers of the things and beings created. ( <010112>Genesis 1:12, 22, 24, 28 ? earth brought forth grass, trees yielding fruit whose seed was in itself, earth brought forth the living creatures and man commanded to be fruitful and multiply).
The tendency at present among men of science is to regard the whole history of life upon the planet as the result of evolution, thus excluding
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