already a penal infliction.? S. S. Times, Apl. 5, 1902:185 ? ?Doing as well as we know how is not enough, unless we know just what is right and then do that. God never tells us merely to do our best or according to our knowledge. It is our duty to know what is right, and then to do it. Ignorantia legis neminem excusat. We have responsibility for knowing preliminary to doing.?
C. Conscience distinguished from other mental processes. The nature and office of conscience will be still more clearly perceived, if we distinguish it from other processes and operations with which it is too often confounded. Conscience is a term that has been used by various writers to designate either one or all of the following:
1. Moral intuition, which is the intuitive perception of the difference between right and wrong, as opposite moral categories.
2. Accepted law, which is the application of the intuitive idea to general classes of actions and the declaration that these classes of actions are right or wrong, apart from our individual relation to them. This accepted law is the complex product of
(a) the intuitive idea,
(b) the logical intelligence,
(c) experiences of utility,
(d) influences of society and education, and
(e) positive divine revelation.
3. Judgment is the application of this accepted law to individual and concrete cases in our own experience and pronouncing our own acts or states either past, present or prospective, to be right or wrong.
4. Command is the authoritative declaration of obligation to do the right, or forbear from doing the wrong together with an impulse of the sensibility away from the one and toward the other.
5. Remorse or approval is moral sentiment either of approbation or disapprobation, in view of past acts or states, regarded as wrong or right.
6. Fear or hope is instinctive disposition of disobedience to expect punishment and of obedience to expect reward.
Ladd, Philos. of Conduct, 70 ? ?The feeling of the ought is primary, essential, unique; the judgments as to what one ought are the results of
Was this article helpful?