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That all of God?s creative activity is exercised through Christ has been sufficiently proved in our treatment of the Trinity and of Christ?s deity as an element of that doctrine (see pages 310, 311). We may here refer to the texts which have been previously considered, namely, <430103>John 1:3, 4 ? ?All things were made through him, and without him was not anything made. That which hath been made was life in him?; <460806>1 Corinthians 8:6 ? ?one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things?; <510116>Colossians 1:16 ? ?all things have been created through him, and unto him?; <580110> Hebrews 1:10 ? ?Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works of thy hands.?

The work of the Holy Spirit seems to be that of completing, bringing to perfection. We can understand this only by remembering that our Christian knowledge and love are brought to their consummation by the Holy Spirit, and that he is also the principle of our natural self- consciousness, uniting subject and object in a subject-object. If matter is conceived of as a manifestation of spirit, after the idealistic philosophy, then the Holy Spirit may be regarded as the perfecting and realizing agent in the externalization of the divine ideas. While it was the Word though whom all things were made, the Holy Spirit was the author of life, order, and adornment. Creation is not a mere manufacturing ? it is a spiritual act.

John Caird, Fundamental Ideas of Christianity, 1:120 ? ?The creation of the world cannot be by a Being who is external. Power presupposes an object on which it is exerted. 129 ? There is in the very nature of God a reason why he should reveal himself in, and communicate himself to, a world of finite existences, or fulfill and realize himself in the being and life of nature and man. His nature would not be what it is if such a world did not exist; something would be lacking to the completeness of the divine being without it. 144 ? Even with respect to human thought or intelligence 7 it is mind or spirit, which creates the world. It is not a readymade world on which we look; in perceiving our world we make it. 152-154 ? We make progress as we cease to think our own thoughts and become media of the universal Intelligence.? While we accept Caird?s idealistic interpretation of creation, we dissent from his intimation that creation is a necessity to God. The Trinitarian being of God renders him sufficient to himself, even without creation. Yet those very Trinitarian relations throw light upon the method of creation, since they disclose to us the order of all the divine activity. On the definition of Creation, see Shedd, History of Doctrine, 1:11.

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