Park: ?The doctrine of the Trinity does not on the one hand assert that three persons are united in one person, or three beings in one being, or three Gods in one God (tri-theism); nor on the other hand that God merely manifests himself in three different ways (modal trinity, or trinity of manifestations); but rather that there are three eternal distinctions in the substance of God.? Smyth, preface to Edwards, Observations on the Trinity: ?The church doctrine of the Trinity affirms that there are in the Godhead three distinct hypo-stases or subsistences ? the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit ? each possessing one and the same divine nature, though in a different manner. The essential points are

(1) the unity of essence;

(2) the reality of immanent or ontological distinctions.?

See Park on Edwards?s View of the Trinity, in Bibliotheca Sacra, April, 1881:333. Princeton Essays, 1:28 ? ?There is one God; Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are this one God; there is such a distinction between Father, Son and Holy Spirit as to lay a sufficient ground for the reciprocal use of the personal pronouns.? Joseph Cook:

? (1) The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are one God;

(2) each has a peculiarity incommunicable to the others;

(3) neither is God without the others;

We regard the doctrine of the Trinity as implicitly held by the apostles and as involved in the New Testament declarations with regard to Father, Son and Holy Spirit, while we concede that the doctrine had not by the New Testament writers been formulated. They held it, as it were in solution; only time, reflection, and the shock of controversy and opposition caused it to crystallize into definite and dogmatic form. Chadwick, Old and New Unitarianism, 59, 60, claims that the Jewish origin of Christianity shows that the Jewish Messiah could not originally have been conceived of as divine. If Jesus had claimed this, he would not have been taken before Pilate ? the Jews would have dispatched him. The doctrine of the Trinity says Chadwick was not developed until the Council of Nice, 325. E. G. Robinson: ?There was no doctrine of the Trinity in the Patristic period, as there was no doctrine of the Atonement before Anselm.? The Outlook, Notes and Queries, March 30, 1901 ? ?The doctrine of the Trinity cannot be said to have taken final shape before the appearance of the so called Athanasian Creed in the 8th or 9th century. The Nicene Creed, formulated in the 4th century, is termed by Dr. Schaff, from the orthodox point of view, ?semi-Trinitarian.? The earliest time known at which Jesus

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