consistency of the divine action? are children like their parents. We cannot regard either of these mediating views as self-consistent or intelligible. We pass on therefore to consider the Traducian theory, which we believe more fully to meet the requirements of Scripture and of reason. For further discussion of creationism, see Frohschammer, Ursprung der Seele, 18-58; Alger, Doctrine of a Future Life, 1-17.

3. The Traducian Theory.

This view was propounded by Tertullian and was implicitly held by Augustine. In modern times it has been the prevailing opinion of the Lutheran Church. It holds that the human race was immediately created in Adam, and, as respects both body and soul, was propagated from him by natural generation and all souls since Adam being only mediately created by God, as the upholder of the laws of propagation which were originally established by him.

Tertullian, De Anima: ?Tradux peccati, tradux animĀ«.? Gregory of Nyssa: ?Man being one, consisting of soul and body, the common beginning of his constitution must be supposed also one so that he may not be both older and younger than himself. In him, which is bodily being first and the other coming after? (quoted in Crippen, Hist. of Christ. Doct., 80). Augustine, De Pec. Mer. et Rem., 3:7 ? ?In Adam all sinned, at the time when in his nature all were still that one man?; De Civ. Dei. 13:14 ? ?For we all were in that one man, when we all were that one man. The form in which we each should live was not as yet individually created and distributed to us, but there already existed the seminal nature from which we were propagated.? Augustine, indeed, wavered in his statements with regard to the origin of the soul, apparently fearing that an explicit and pronounced traducianism might involve materialistic consequences; yet, as logically lying at the basis of his doctrine of original sin. Traducianism came to be the ruling view of the Lutheran reformers. In his Table Talk, Luther says: ?The reproduction of mankind is a great marvel and mystery. Had God consulted me in the matter, I should have advised him to continue the generation of the species by fashioning them out of clay, in the way Adam was fashioned. I should have counseled him also to let the sun remain always suspended over the earth, like a great lamp, maintaining perpetual light and heat.?

Traducianism holds that man, as a species, was created in Adam. In Adam, the substance of humanity was yet undistributed. We derive our immaterial as well as our material being, by natural laws of propagation, from Adam ? each individual man after Adam possessing a part of the

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