In this more accurate use, yuch> denotes man?s immaterial part in its inferior powers and activities; as yuch> man is a conscious individual and, in common with the brute creation, has an animal life, together with appetite, imagination, memory, and understanding. Pneu~ma , on the other hand, denotes man?s immaterial part in its higher capacities and faculties; as pneu~ma , man is a being related to God, and possessing powers of reason, conscience, and free will, which difference him from the brute creation and constitute him responsible and immortal.

In the following texts, spirit and soul are distinguished from each other:

<520523> 1 Thess. 5:23 ? ?And the God of peace himself sanctify you wholly; and may your spirit and soul and body be preserved entire, without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ?; <580413>Hebrews 4:13 ? ?For the word of God is living, and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing even to the dividing of soul and spirit of both joints and marrow, and quick to discern the thoughts and intents of heart? Compare <460214> 1 Corinthians 2:14 ? ?Now the natural [psychical?] man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God?; 15:44 ? ?It is sown a natural [Gr. ?psychical?] body; it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural [Gr. ?psychical?] body, there is also a spiritual body?; <490423>Ephesians 4:23 ? ?that ye be renewed in the spirit of your mind?; Jude 19 ? ?sensual [Gr. ?psychical?], having not the Spirit.?

For the proper interpretation of these texts, see note on the next page. Among those who cite them as proofs of the trichotomous theory (trichotomous, from tri>ca , in three parts.? and te>mnw , ?to cut,? composed of three parts, i.e., spirit, soul, and body) may be mentioned Olshausen, Opuscula, 134. and Com. on 1Thess.,5:23; Beck, Biblische Seelenehre, 31; Delitzsch, Biblical Psychology, 117, 118; Goschel, in Herzog, Realencyclopadie, art.: Seele; also, art, by Auberlen: Geist des Menschen; Cremer, NT Lexicon, on pneu~ma and yuch> ; Usteri, Paulin, Lehrbegriff, 384 sq.; Neander, Planting and Training, 394; Van Oosterzee, Christian Dogmatics, 365, 366; Boardman, in Bap. Quarterly, 1:177, 325, 428; Heard, Tripartite Nature of Man, 62-114; Ellicott, Destiny of the Creature, 106-125.

The element of truth in trichotomy is simply this, that man has a triad of endowment, in virtue of which the single soul has relations to matter, to self and to God. The trichotomous theory, however, as it is ordinarily defined, endangers the unity and immateriality of our higher nature, by holding that man consists of three substances, or three component parts ?

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