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spiritual forces from the spiritual world of divine revelation. This is to heal and build and discipline the soul within itself, giving it the victory over the animal passions, which constitute the body and over the kingdom of blind desire, which constitutes the world. The final purpose of man is growth of the soul into liberty, truth, love and likeness to God. Education is the word that covers the movement and probation is incident to education.? We add that reparation for past sin and renewing power from above must follow probation in order to make education possible.

Some recent writers hold to a real fall of man and yet regard that fall as necessary to his moral development. Emma Marie Caillard, in Contemp. Rev., Dec. 1893:879 ? ?Man passed out of a state of innocence ? unconscious of his own imperfection ? into a state of consciousness of it. The will became slave instead of master. The result would have been the complete stoppage of his evolution but for redemption, which restored his will and made the continuance of his evolution possible. Incarnation was the method of redemption. But even apart from the fall, this incarnation would have been necessary to reveal to man the goal of his evolution and so to secure his cooperation in it.? Lisle, Evolution of Spiritual Man, 39, and in Bibliotheca Sacra, July, 1892:431-452 ? ?Evolution by catastrophe in the natural world has a striking analogue in the spiritual world. Sin is primarily not so much a fall from a higher to a lower, as a failure to rise from a lower to a higher, not so much eating of the forbidden tree, as failure to partake of the tree of life. The latter represented communion and correspondence with God, and had innocent man continued to reach out for this, he would not have fallen. Man?s refusal to choose the higher preceded and conditioned his fall to the lower and the essence of sin is therefore in this refusal, whatever may cause the will to make it. Man chose the lower of his own free will. Then his centripetal force was gone. His development was swiftly and endlessly away from God. He reverted to his original type of savage animalism and yet, as a self-conscious and free-acting being, he retained a sense of responsibility that filled him with fear and suffering.?

On the development-theory of sin, see W. W. McLane, in New Englander, 1891:180-188; A. B. Bruce, Apologetics, 60-62; Lyman Abbott, Evolution of Christianity, 203-208; Le Conte, Evolution, 330, 365-375: Henry Drummond, Ascent of Man, 1-13, 329, 342; Salem Wilder, Life, its Nature, 266-273; Wm. Graham, Creed of Science, 38-44; Frank H. Foster, Evolution and the Evangelical System; Chandler, The Spirit of Man, 45-47.

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