between nature and person. Nature is substance possessed in common, the persons of the Trinity have one nature, there is a common nature of mankind. Person is nature separately subsisting, with powers of consciousness and will. Since the human nature of Christ has not and never had a separate subsistence, it is impersonal, and in the God-man the Logos furnishes the principle of personality. It is equally important to observe that self-consciousness and self-determination do not belong to nature as such but only to personality. For this reason, Christ has not two consciousness? and two wills, but a single consciousness and a single will. This consciousness and will, moreover, is never simply human, but is always theanthropic ? an activity of the one personality which unites in itself the human and the divine ( <411332>Mark 13:32; <422242>Luke 22:42).
The human father and the human mother are distinct persons, and they each give something of their own peculiar nature to their child yet the result is, not two persons in the child, but only one person, with one consciousness and one will. So the Fatherhood of God and the motherhood of Mary produced not a double personality in Christ, but a single personality. Dorner illustrates the union of human and divine in Jesus by the Holy Spirit in the Christian. Nothing foreign, nothing distinguishable from the human life into which it enters and by the moral sense, which is the very presence and power of God in the human soul, yet conscience does not break up the unity of the life. See C. C. Everett, Essays, 32. These illustrations help us to understand the inter-penetration of the human by the divine in Jesus but they are defective in suggesting that his relation to God was different from Ours not in kind but only in degree. Only Jesus could say: ?Before Abraham was born, I am?
( <430858>John 8:58); ?I and the Father are one? ( <431030>John 10:30).
The theory of two consciousness? and two wills, first elaborated by John of Damascus, was an unwarranted addition to the orthodox doctrine propounded at Chalcedon. Although the view of John of Damascus was sanctioned by the Council of Constantinople (681), ?this Council has never been regarded by the Greek Church as ecumenical. Its composition and spirit deprive its decisions of all value as indicating the true sense of Scripture?; see Bruce, Humiliation of Christ, 90. Nature has consciousness and will, only as it is manifested in person. The one person has a single consciousness and will which embraces within its scope at all times a human nature, and sometimes a divine. Notice that we do not say Christ?s human nature had no will but only that it had none before its union with the divine nature and none separately from the one will which
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