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explain how this desire came to be inordinate. Nor does it throw light upon the matter, to resolve this fall into a deception of our first parents by Satan. Their yielding to such deception presupposes distrust of God and alienation from him. Satan?s fall, moreover, since it must have been uncaused by temptation from without, is more difficult to explain than Adam?s fall.

We may distinguish six incorrect explanations of the origin of sin:

1. Emmons: Sin is due to God?s efficiency ? God wrought the sin in man?s heart. This is the ?exercise system,? and is essentially pantheistic.

2. Edwards: Sin is due to God?s providence ? God caused the sin indirectly by presenting motives. This explanation has all the difficulties of determinism.

3. Augustine: Sin is the result of God?s withdrawal from man?s soul. But inevitable sin is not sin, and the blame of it rests on God who withdrew the grace needed for obedience.

4. Pfleiderer: The fall results from man?s already existing sinfulness. The fault then belongs, not to man, but to God who made man sinful.

5. Hadley: Sin is due to man?s moral insanity. But such concreated ethical defect would render sin impossible. Insanity is the effect of sin, but not Its cause.

6. Newman: Sin is due to man?s weakness. It is a negative, not a positive, thing, an incident of finiteness. But conscience and Scripture testify that it is positive as well as negative, Opposition to God as well as non- conformity to God.

Emmons was really a pantheist. ?Since God,? he says, ?works in all men both to will and to do of his good pleasure, it is as easy to account for the first offense of Adam as for any other sin? There is no difficulty respecting the fall of Adam from his original state of perfection and purity into a state of sin and guilt, which is in any way peculiar. It is as consistent with the moral rectitude of the Deity to produce sinful as holy exercises in the minds of men. He puts forth a positive influence to make moral agents act, in every instance of their conduct, as he pleases. There is but one satisfactory answer to the question Whence came evil? and that is: It came from the great first Cause of all things?; see Nathaniel Emmons, Works, 2:683.

Jonathan Edwards also denied power to the contrary even in Adam?s first sin. God did not immediately cause that sin. But God was active in the

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