public person and representative.? The, oneness results from contract; the natural union is frequently not mentioned at all. Marck: All men sinned in Adam, ?eos representante.? The acts of Adam and of Christ are ours

? jure representationis.?

G. W. Northrup makes the order of the Federal theory to be:

(2) condemnation on the ground of this imputed guilt;

(3) corruption of nature consequent upon treatment as condemned.

So judicial imputation of Adam?s sin is the cause and ground of innate corruption. All the acts, with the single exception of the sin of Adam, are divine acts; the appointment of Adam, the creation of his descendants, the imputation of his guilt, the condemnation of his posterity, their consequent corruption. Here we have guilt without sin, exposure to divine wrath without ill desert, God regarding men as being what they are not, punishing them on the ground of a sin committed before they existed, and visiting them with gratuitous condemnation and gratuitous reprobation. Here are arbitrary representation, fictitious imputation, constructive guilt, limited atonement.? The Presb. Rev., Jan. 1882:30, claims that Kloppenburg (1642) preceded Cocceius (1648) in holding to the theory of the Covenants, as did also the Canons of Dort. For additional statements of Federalism, see Hodge, Essays, 49-86, and Systematic Theology, 2:192-204; Bibliotheca Sacra, 21:95-107; Cunningham, historical Theology.

To the Federal theory we object:

A. It is extra-Scriptural. There is no mention of such a covenant with Adam in the account of man?s trial. The assumed allusion to Adam?s apostasy in <280607>Hosea 6:7, where the word ?covenant? is used, is too precarious and too obviously metaphorical to afford the basis for a scheme of imputation (see Henderson, Com. on Minor Prophets, in loco). In

<580808> Hebrews 8:8 ? ?new covenant? ? there is suggested a contrast, not with an Adamic, but with the Mosaic, covenant (cf. verse 9).

In <280607>Hosea 6:7 ? ?they like Adam [margin ?men?] have transgressed the covenant? (Revised Version) ? Henderson, Minor Prophets, gives the correct translation: ?But they, like men that break a covenant, there they proved false to me.? LXX; aujtoi< de> eijsin wJv a]nqrwpov parabai>nwn diaqh>khn . De Wette: ?Aber sie ubertreten den Bund nach Menschenart; daselbst sind sie mir treulos.? Here the word adam,

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