the soul itself, not in its physical organism. God does not tempt man nor has he made man?s nature to tempt him ( <590113>James 1:13, 14).

In the use of the term ?flesh? Scripture puts a stigma upon sin and intimates that human nature without God is as corruptible and perishable as the body would be without the soul to inhabit it. The ?carnal mind,? or ?mind of the flesh? ( <450807>Romans 8:7), accordingly means not the sensual mind but the mind which is not under the control of the Holy Spirit, its true life. See Meyer, on <460126>1 Corinthians 1:26 ? sa>rx = ?the purely human element in man, as opposed to the divine principle?; Pope, Theology, 2:65 ? sa>rx = ?the whole being of man, body, soul, and spirit, separated from God and subjected to the creature?; Julius Muller, Proof-texts, 19 ? sa>rx = ?human nature as living in and for itself, sundered from God and opposed to him.? The earliest and best statement of this view of the term pneu~ma is that of Julius Muller, Doctrine of Sin, 1:295-333, especially 321. See also Dickson, St. Paul?s Use of the Terms Flesh and Spirit, 270-271 sa>rx = ?human nature without the pneu>ma ? man standing by himself or left to himself, over against God? the natural man, conceived as not having yet received grace or as not yet wholly under its influence.?

<590114> James 1:14, 15 ? ?desire, when it hath conceived, beareth sin? = innocent desire ? for it comes in before the sin ? innocent constitutional propensity, not yet of the nature of depravity, is only the occasion of sin. The love of freedom is a part of our nature; sin arises only when the will determines to indulge this impulse without regard to the restraints of the divine law. Luther, Preface to Ep. to Romans: ?Thou must not understand ?flesh? as though that only were ?flesh? which is connected with unchastely. St. Paul uses ?flesh? of the whole man, body and soul, reason and all his faculties included, because all that is in him longs and strives after the flesh?.? Melanchthon: ?Note that ?flesh? signifies the entire nature of man, sense and reason, without the Holy Spirit.? Gould Bib. Theol. New Testament 78 ? ?The sa>rx of Paul corresponds to the ko>smov of John. Paul sees the divine economy and John the divine nature. That Paul did not hold sin to consist in the possession of a body appears from his doctrine of a bodily resurrection (1 Corinthians 25:38-49). This resurrection of the body is an integral part of immortality.? Sa>rx , see Thayer, New Testament Lexicon, 571; Kaftan, Dogmatik, 319.

(f) Instead of explaining sin, this theory virtually denies its existence, for if sin arises from the original constitution of our being, reason may recognize it as misfortune but conscience cannot attribute to it guilt.

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