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and relations, as taste has to do with aesthetic being and relations. But the ethical judgment and impulse are, like the aesthetic judgment and impulse, the mode in which intellect, sensibility and will act with reference to a certain class of objects. Conscience deals with the right, as taste deals with the beautiful. Consciousness ( con and scio) is a con knowing. It is a knowing of our thoughts, desires and volition in connection with a knowing of the self that has these thoughts, desires and volition. Conscience is a con knowing. It is a knowing of our moral acts and states in connection with a knowing of same moral standard or law which is conceived of as our true self and therefore as having authority over us. Ladd, Philosophy of Mind, 183-185 ? ?The condemnation of self involves self-diremption, double consciousness. Without it Kant?s categorical imperative is impossible. The one self lays down the law to the other self, judges it, threatens it. This is what is meant, when the apostle says: ?It is no more I that do it but sin that dwelleth in me? ( <450717>Romans 7:17)?

B. Conscience discriminative and impulsive. But we need to define more narrowly both the intellectual and the emotional elements in conscience. As respects the intellectual element, we may say that conscience is a power of judgment and it declares our acts or states to conform, or not to conform, to law. It declares the acts or states which conform to be obligatory or those, which do not conform, to be forbidden. In other words, conscience judges: (1) this is right (or, wrong); (2) I ought (or, I ought not). In connection with this latter judgment, there comes into view the emotional element of conscience when we feel the claim of duty; there is an inner sense that the wrong must not be done. Thus conscience is (1) discriminative and (2) impulsive.

Robinson, Principles and Practice of Morality, 173 ? ?The one distinctive function of conscience is that of authoritative self-judgments in the conscious presence of a supreme Personality to whom we as persons feel ourselves accountable. It is this twofold personal element in every judgment of conscience, viz., the conscious self-judgment in the presence of the all-judging Deity. This has led such writers as Bain, Spencer and Stephen to attempt to explain the origin and authority of conscience as the product of parental training and social environment. Conscience is not prudential nor advisory nor executive, but solely judicial. Conscience is the moral reason pronouncing upon moral actions. Consciousness furnishes law and conscience pronounces judgments by saying: Thou shalt, Thou shalt not. Every man must obey his conscience; if it is not enlightened, that is his outlook. The callusing of conscience in this life is

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