now a plenum can become a vacuum, or now a vacuum can become a plenum.? On the Pelagian view of freedom, see Julius Muller, Doctrine of Sin, 37-44.

<197908> Psalm 79:8 ? ?Remember not against us the iniquities of our forefathers?; 106:6 ? ?We have sinned with our fathers.? Notice the analogy of individuals who suffer from the effects of parental mistakes or of national transgression. Julius Muller, Doct. Sin, 2:316, 317 ? ?Neither the atomistic nor the organic view of human nature is the complete truth.? Each must be complemented by the other. For statement of race-responsibility, see Dorner, Glaubenslehre, 2:30-39, 51-64, 161, 162 (System of Doctrine, 2:324-334; 345-359; 3:50-54)

?Among the Scripture proofs of the moral connection of the individual with the race are the visiting of the sins of the fathers upon the children. The obligation of the people to punish the sin of the individual that the whole land may not incur guilt, the offering of sacrifice for a murder, the perpetrator of which is unknown. Achan?s crime is charged to the whole people. The Jewish race is the better for its parentage and other nations are the worse for theirs. The Hebrew people become a legal personality.

?Is it said that none are punished for the sins of their fathers unless they are like their fathers? But to be unlike their fathers requires a new heart. They who are not held accountable for the sins of their fathers are those who have recognized their responsibility for them and have repented for their likeness to their ancestors. Only the self-isolating spirit says: ?Am I my brother?s keeper?? (Gen. 4:9), and thinks to construct a constant equation between individual misfortune and individual sin. The calamities of the righteous led to an ethical conception of the relation of the individual to the community. Such sufferings show that men can love God disinterestedly and that the good has unselfish friends. These sufferings are substitutionary, when borne as belonging to the sufferer, not foreign to him, the guilt of others attaching to him by virtue of his national or race-relation to them. So Moses in <023409>Exodus 34:9, David in <195106>Psalm 51:6, Isaiah in <235909>Isaiah 59:9-16, recognize the connection between personal sin and race-sin.

?Christ restores the bond between man and his fellows, turns the hearts of the fathers to the children, he is the creator of a new race-consciousness. In him as the head we see ourselves bound to and responsible for, others. Love finds it morally impossible to isolate itself. It restores the consciousness of unity and the recognition of common guilt. Does every man stand for himself in the N. T.? This would be so, only if each man

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