constituted an epoch, and had great influence in delivering Germany from the rationalistic toils into which it had fallen. We may now speak of a
Third division ? and in this division we may put the names of Neander and Tholuck, Twesten and Nitzsch, Muller and Luthhardt, Dorner and Phillippi, Ebrard and Thomasius, Lange and Kahnis, all of them exponets of a far more pure and evangelical theology than was common in Germany a century ago. Two new forms of rationalism, however, have appeared in Germany, the one based upon the philosophy of Hegel, and numbering among its adherents Strauss and Baur, Biedermann, Lipsius and Pfleiderer; the other based upon the philosophy of Kant, and advocated by Ritschl and his followers, Harnack, Hermann and Kaftan; the former emphasizing the ideal Christ, the latter emphasizing the historical Christ; but neither of the two fully recognizing the living Christ present in every believer (see Johnson?s Cyclopedia, art., Theology, By A. H. Strong).
3. Among theologians of views diverse from the prevailing Protestant faith, may be mentioned: (a) Bellarmine (1542-1621), the Roman Catholic.
Besides Bellarmine, ?the best controversial writer of his age? (Bayle), the Roman Catholic Church numbers among its noted modern theologians; ? Petavius (1583-1682). whose dogmatic theology Gibbon calls ?a work of incredible labor and compass?. Melchior Canus (1523-1560), an opponent of the Jesuits and their scholastic method; Bossuet (1627-1704), who idealized Catholicism in his Exposition of Doctrine, and attacked Protestantism in his History of Variations of Protestant Churches; Jansen (1585-1638), who attempted, in opposition to the Jesuits, to reproduce the theology of Augustine, and who had in this the powerful assistance of Pascal (1623-1662). Jansenism, so far as the doctrines of grace are concerned, but not as respects the sacraments is virtual Protestantism within the Roman Catholic Church. Moehler?s Symbolism, Perrone?s ?Prelectiones Theologie,? and Hurter?s ?Compendium Theologie Dogmatice? are the latest and most approved expositions of Roman Catholic doctrine.
(b) Arminius (1560-1609), the opponent of predestination.
Among the followers of Arminius (1560-1609) must be reckoned Episcopius (l583-1643), who carried Arminianism to almost Pelagian extremes; Hugo Grotius (1513-1645), the jurist and statesman, author of
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